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Open access

Qijie Xu, Lei Zhang, Wenzhong Shi and Yuanchen Cui

Catalytic performances of cross-linking humic acids supported Pd/Ni bimetallic catalyst for heck reaction

The cross-linking humic acids (CL-HAs), epichlorohydrin as the cross-linking reagent and the supported Pd/Ni bimetallic catalysts (CL-HAs-Pd/Ni) were prepared and characterized by IR, AAS, XPS, TEM. The effects of reaction time, temperature, base, solvent and the amount of catalyst on the properties of the catalyst were studied. These catalysts could catalyze the Heck reaction of aryl halides and substituted aryl halides with acrylic acids or styrene successfully; the yields were all above 95%.

Open access

Jiu-chuan Lin, Yong-jian Wang, Rong-rong Xi, Lei Cui and Zhi-yu Hao

Open access

Meng Yue, Zhan-Ying Ma, Meng-Jie Lei, Chu-Yun Cui and Yi Jin

Abstract

Background

Early mobilization (EM) is a regimen that was carried out by physiotherapists in a relatively early stage. It has been investigated by an increasing number of researchers. However, there has not been a meta-analysis concerning whether EM could benefit the clinical outcomes of critically ill patients requiring mechanical ventilation (MV). The present systematic review aims to evaluate the effect of EM compared with immobilization for mechanically ventilated patients.

Methods

A computerized literature search was performed in six databases for related articles from inception to June 2017. We included randomized controlled trials and controlled clinical trials and used the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale to assess the quality of included studies. Primary outcomes were measures of muscle function, duration of MV, and incidence of mortality. Secondary outcomes were adverse effects and length of stay (LOS) in intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital.

Results

Eight trials were included; of those, only one study without standard EM reported that the intervention was invalid to improve the outcomes. The result of meta-analysis indicated that EM shortened the duration of MV; however, it had no positive effect on mortality and LOS in ICU.

Conclusions

This review suggests that EM improves the muscle function and ventilation duration. Further research highlighting standard intervention and specific groups is needed.

Open access

Peng-Fei Han, Zhi-Liang Zhang, Tao-Yu Chen, Rui-Peng Zhao, Rong Zhang, Xiao-Dong Li, Peng-Cui Li, Lei Wei, Zhi Lv and Xiao-Chun Wei

Abstract

The main pathological change in post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) is cartilage degeneration, which is closely related to inflammation and oxidative stress. Inflammation can cause degeneration of articular cartilage. Cartilage degeneration can also stimulate the progression of inflammation. It has been found that inflammatory cytokines can participate in the pathological process of cartilage degeneration through multiple signaling pathways, mainly mitogen-activated protein kinase, nuclear transcription factor kappa B, and Wnt–β-catenin signal transduction pathways. This review aimed at exploring the relationship between PTOA and inflammation-related cytokines by introducing the role of proinflammatory cytokines in chondrocyte destruction and extracellular matrix degradation.