A teaching strategy is a method, which can help students to gain knowledge, deliver information, and improve their learning. Different learning environments, such as clinical teaching, online teaching, and face-to-face traditional learning environments, require different teaching strategies for students. Choosing teaching strategies for a course is very important for nurse educators because various factors should be taken into account to make students meet the learning outcomes. The use of modern technologies in teaching strategies can improve students’ competencies and confidences. The purpose of this article is to create a toolbox integrating ten teaching strategies that can be used in different teaching environments.
In this paper emulsifying effects of seven emulsifiers including Tween 80, Span 80, tripolyglycerol monostearate, sodium stearoyl lactylate, sucrose ester, soy lecithin and monoglyceride on phytosterol in milk were investigated using single factor test and fractional factorial design. The addition for seven emulsifiers were in the following concentrations: 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4%, 0.5% and 0.6%. The results revealed that tripolyglycerol monostearate, sucrose ester and monoglyceride had a significant emulsifying effect on phytosterol in milk, Tripolyglycerol monostearate showed a positive emulsifying effect on phytosterol in milk, while sucrose ester and monoglyceride exhibited a negative emulsifying effect on phytosterol in milk.
In present study, the effects of carbon sources (glucose, lactose, sucrose, galactose, maltose and soluble starch) and nitrogen sources (casein peptone, whey protein, soy peptone, yeast, tryptone, beef extract and peptone) on activity of cell envelope proteinases (CEP), specific activity, protein content, OD600 value and pH in MRS broth fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum LP69 were investigated by individual factor experiment. The results indicated that carbon and nitrogen sources have significant influence on the activity of CEP and specific activitys of L. plantarum LP69, glucose, maltose, casein peptone and peptone are superior to other selected carbon and nitrogen sources. The optimum concentrations of glucose, maltose, casein peptone and peptone for L. plantarum LP69 are 2%, 2%, 1% and 1%; the activity of CEP are 19.52U/mL, 21.13U/mL, 13.49U/mL and 20.61U/mL, respectively.
The objective of the present study was to obtain the optimum proportion of the carbon source and prebiotics for Bifidobacterium bifidum BB01 by the central composite design (CCD). The effect of carbon source (lactose) and two prebiotics (inulin and fructooligosaccharides) on the BB01 were observed by measuring the OD600 value, pH value and the viable counts at 18h. The final optimized concentrations of carbon source and prebiotics were: lactose 1.6%, inulin 0.26%, and fructooligosaccharides 0.22%. The result indicates that the growth of B. bifidum BB01 shows an significant increase in the optimized culture medium (p < 0.05), the OD600 value reached 1.434 at 18h, which increased 6.58% compared to the control. And the viable counts of B. bifidum BB01 increased 24.36% and reached (2.17±0.06) ×109cfu/mL. The results show that the optimization of the carbon source and prebiotics using CCD in this study is workable and necessary.
To investigate the retention efficiency and mechanism of nitrogen of Vegetative filter strips (VFSs) in the Danjiangkou Reservoir area, simulated runoff discharging experiments were carried out in a new-established Bermuda VFS. The results showed that the Bermuda VFS reduced 73.1-86.1 % of surface runoff through infiltration. The outflow rate of runoff increased first and then became stable with time. The concentration reduction rates (CRRs) and load reduction rates (LRRs) of NH3-N increased initially and then decreased with the increase of inflow concentration. The average CRRs and LRRs of NH3-N in three treatments ranged 66.1-90.3 % and 90.0-96.7 %, respectively. The concentration reduction of NH3-N was primarily achieved by soil adsorption. The optimal inflow concentration of NH3-N for the optimum CRR was between 0.65 and 3.52 mg/dm3. The CRRs and LRRs of NO3-N fluctuated between 6.8-14.0 % and 72.0-77.9 % in three treatments. The concentration reduction of NO3-N was primarily achieved by plant uptake and soil microbe assimilation. The optimal inflow concentration of NO3-N for optimum CRR exceeded 6.78 mg/dm3. The CRRs and LRRs of TN increased with the increase of inflow concentrations. The average CRRs in the low, moderate and high treatments reached 9.7, 14.8 and 27.4 %, respectively, and the average LRRs reached 72.1, 74.3 and 81.2 %, respectively. The optimal inflow concentration of TN for optimum CRR exceeded 10.21 mg/dm3. The study showed that Bermuda grass can retain nitrogen in runoff efficiently and should be promoted around the Danjiangkou reservoir.
The paper proposes a solution to an inverse kinematics problem based on dual quaternions algebra. The method, relying on screw theory, requires less calculation effort compared with commonly used approaches. The obtained kinematic description is very concise, and the singularity problem is avoided. The dual quaternions formalism is applied to the problem decomposition and description. As an example, the kinematics problem of a multi-DOF serial manipulator is considered. Direct and inverse kinematics problems are solved using division into sub-problems. Each new sub-problem proposed is concerned with rotation about two subsequent axes by a given amount. The presented example verifies the correctness and feasibility of the proposed approach.
With the rapid development of deep learning techniques, the popularity of voice services implemented on various Internet of Things (IoT) devices is ever increasing. In this paper, we examine user-level membership inference in the problem space of voice services, by designing an audio auditor to verify whether a specific user had unwillingly contributed audio used to train an automatic speech recognition (ASR) model under strict black-box access. With user representation of the input audio data and their corresponding translated text, our trained auditor is effective in user-level audit. We also observe that the auditor trained on specific data can be generalized well regardless of the ASR model architecture. We validate the auditor on ASR models trained with LSTM, RNNs, and GRU algorithms on two state-of-the-art pipelines, the hybrid ASR system and the end-to-end ASR system. Finally, we conduct a real-world trial of our auditor on iPhone Siri, achieving an overall accuracy exceeding 80%. We hope the methodology developed in this paper and findings can inform privacy advocates to overhaul IoT privacy.
Nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO) is a common event in clinical practice. The authors, all members of the Italian Society of Rhinology, analysed 100 cases from different ENT Departments. The causes of NLDO, according to the etiology, can be divided into two classes: idiopathic primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction and secondary. The aim of the study was to describe an association between the sign and symptoms of chronic rhinosinusitis and a complaint of epiphora.
Ionic liquid (IL) pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials has provided a new technical tool to improve lignocellulosic ethanol production. To evaluate the influence of the residual IL in the fermentable sugars from enzymatic hydrolysis of IL pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials on the subsequent ethanol fermentation, the toxicity of the IL 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl) to Saccharomyces cerevisiae AY93161 was investigated. Firstly, the morphological structure, budding and metabolic activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae AY93161 at different [BMIM]Cl concentrations were observed under an optical microscope. The results show that its single cell morphology remained unchanged at all [BMIM]Cl concentrations, but its reproduction rate by budding and its metabolic activity decreased with the [BMIM]Cl concentration increasing. The half effective concentration (EC50) and the half inhibition concentration (IC50) of [BMIM]Cl to Saccharomyces cerevisiae AY93161 were then measured using solid and liquid suspension culture and their value were 0.53 and 0.39 g.L-1 respectively. Finally, the influence of [BMIM]Cl on ethanol production was investigated. The results indicate that the [BMIM]Cl inhibited the growth and ethanol production of Saccharomyces cerevisiae AY93161. This toxicity study provides useful basic data for further development in lignocellulosic ethanol production by using IL technology and it also enriches the IL toxicity data.
A cylinder liner and piston ring running under starved lubrication near the top dead centre (TDC) and bottom dead centre (BDC) cause abnormal friction and wear during operation of a marine diesel engine. The method of laser texturing is proposed to improve the surface friction property under this condition. Spherical crown pits with different parameters were formed on the surface of samples by femtosecond laser processing. The BDC and TDC conditions of oil starvation were simulated in a reciprocating friction and wear experiment, and a numerical model of surface texture lubrication based on the Reynolds equation was established. The influence of the distribution density, diameter, and depth parameters of the texture on the surface properties was studied. In the BDC condition, compared with the untextured surface, the average coefficient of friction (COF) can be reduced by up to 24% and the average friction force can be reduced by up to 18%. In the TDC condition, the COF can be reduced by up to 19%, and the average friction force can be reduced by up to 18%. Therefore, the textures with various parameters should be arranged in different positions on the cylinder liner; more attention should be paid to the optimisation of diameter in the texture of the cylinder liner near the BDC, whereas more attention should be paid to the optimisation of distribution density in the texture of the cylinder liner near the TDC