Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is one of the most widespread forest trees in the world, ranging from southern Mediterranean mountains to eastern Siberia. 30 trees of Scots pine from the Miłomłyn Forest District were analyzed in terms of 7 nuclear and 8 chloroplast microsatellite DNA loci as well as 7 morphological needle traits. Nuclear microsatellites (Simple Sequence Repeats) have proved to be useful in studying phylogeographic and gene flow patterns in conifers and are being used to infer the demographic history of tree species. A population’s genetic diversity, in fact, represents an important criterion which could be applied in planning future forest management and breeding. Additionally, many elements of Scots pine morphology, including needle traits, are subject to environmental modification. However, the adaptability of those traits remains, to some extent, under genetic control. The trees we investigated here are called Tabórz pine located in the northeast of Poland. This population is described as one of the best in Poland and even in Europe regarding bio mass production, ductility and wood quality. The aim of the study was to determine variation and genetic structure within this population. An analysis of phenotypic differentiation showed that the traits which differed the most between individuals were needle length, the number of serrations per 2 mm of needle length along the right edge and the number of stomatal rows on the convex side of the needles. In Tabórz pine, we detected 30 different genotypes with 87 alleles as well as 28 haplotypes with 30 alleles. We also revealed a slight excess of homozygotes, but the population is still in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The Scots pine population from Tabórz furthermore showed a higher level of genetic diversity compared to stands from other Polish and European regions. This diversity may be the main factor impacting on the population’s wood quality and its breeding value.