Laura Ozoliņa-Pole, Ilze Apenlte and Rinalds Ciematnieks
The aim of the present study was to determine the distribution and prevalence of S. tipuliformis in Latvia. In 2008-2009, trials were carried out in blackcurrant plantations aimed at establishing the distribution of S. tipuliformis across the territory of Latvia. To achieve this goal, 13 blackcurrant plantations were surveyed in 2008. The research was continued in three plantations in 2009. To assess of prevalence and level of damage caused by the S. tipuliformis, two methods were used: cutting of branches (five branches were cut from each bush) and pheromone traps with dispensers (distributed in each trial farm with density one trap per ha). The presence of S. tipuliformis was recorded in all 13 horticultural farms surveyed in 2008. Analyses of the branch samples demonstrated that the pest invaded from 3% to 70% of the branches. A total of 2.5 to 35 adults were caught per pheromone trap. The highest proportion of the branches invaded by the S. tipuliformis was in 2008 (70%) and the highest number of males in traps in 2009 was recorded in Jelgava municipality. S. tipuliformis is widely found in blackcurrant growing plantations across the whole territory of Latvia.
Gunta Laizāne, Anda Ķīvīte, Ilze Grope, Liene Smane, Edvīns Miklaševics, Laura Ozoliņa and Dace Gardovska
In developed and developing countries, most cases of acute gastroenteritis in children are caused by viruses, and rotaviruses are known as the leading cause. The aim of our study was to estimate the main circulating serotypes of rotavirus before the introduction of routine immunisation in Latvia, and to search for their possible correlation with clinical symptoms and circulating genotypes. A cross-sectional study was carried out among children who had been hospitalised in the Children’s Clinical University Hospital from April 2013 to December 2015. Genotyping was done for 462 stool samples. Among G/P combinations, the most predominant genotypes were G4P (61.3%), G9P (12.4%) and G2P (10.0%) in children of age < 5 years, G4P (45.5%), G2P (18.2%), G9P, G3P, and G1P (9.1%) in children of age > 5 years. There was a statistically significant correlation (p < 0.05) between clinical signs (vomiting, dehydration, chronic diseases) and G1P and G8P genotypes. Infants infected with genotype G4P had a statistically significant negative correlation with severity of acute gastroenteritis episodes (p < 0.05). We detected nine different rotavirus G genotypes, and two different P genotypes. G4P, G9P, and G2P were predominant. We observed correlation between the dominant genotypes and clinical manifestations of rotavirus infection.