Background: Rocuronium is an alternative to succinylcholine for rapid tracheal intubation after major thermal injury and other forms of critical illness that cause denervation changes in skeletal muscle. Rocuronium may decrease the potencies of non-depolarizing muscle relaxants.
Objectives: Examine whether potency of rocuronium changed during the first month after denervation, and investigate the effects of skeletal muscle denervation on potency of rocuronium.
Methods: The denervation mouse model was developed to create denervated individual cells from the flexor digitorum brevis of the hindfoot. The skeletal muscle cells were examined at day 0 in the innervated control and days 1, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 in the denervation group. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the cells were activated with 30 M acetylcholine, alone or in combination with various concentrations of rocuronium. Currents were recorded with a whole-cell patch-clamp technique.
Results: Rocuronium reversibly inhibited acetylcholine-activated currents in a dose-dependent fashion at different times after denervation. The inhibition concentration for the half-maximal responses of rocuronium increased 1.2- (p >0.05), 1.8-, 2.8-, 2.3-, 2.1-, and 1.9-fold (p <0.01) at day 1, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 after denervation, respectively, compared to that at day 0 after denervation.
Conclusion: Rocuronium dose required to achieve satisfactory clinical effects changed at different durations after skeletal muscle denervation.
Background: Nicotine can affect the development of Atherosclerosis (AS). Monocytes/macrophages are the important cells hi the AS lesions.
Objective: We studied the mechanisms of smoking on AS. The effects of nicotine on macrophage were investigated hi this study.
Methods: Different concentration of nicotine (6 × 10-9~-5 mol/L), different incubation time (3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 horn s) and 7 β-hydroxycholesterol (50 μg ml) were schemed in this study. After exposure of macrophage to those different conditions, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and tumor necrosis factor-⃞ (TNF-α) content in the supernatant were assayed.
Results: Nicotine (6 × 10-9mol/L~-6×10-5mol/L) treatment resulted in a marked reduction of LDH in the supernatant (131,0±9.6 U/L. 129.7±6.2 U/L, 129.4±5.3 U/L, 134.2±8.4 U/L, and 138.3+9.7 U/L vs. 151.3+8.1 U/L, p <0.05 respectively, q-test). The same change trend was seen when co-treated with 7β-hydroxycholestrol and nicotine (135.7±7.6U/L, 135.6±6.6U/L, 136.1±6.7 U/L, 142.9±4.5 U/L, and 146.4±4.4 U/L vs. 152.4⃞6.2U/L, P<0.05 respectively, q-test). The peak effects occurred at the nicotine concentration of 6 × 10-7mol/L and the first 18-hours incubation. Nicotine (6 ×10-9mol/L~6 × 10-6mol L) treatment result in the increase of TNF-α in the supernatant (0.28±0.06 ng/mL, 0.32±0.05 ng/mL, 0.40±0.07 ng/mL. and 0.30±0.08 ng/mL vs. 0.17±0.05 ng/mL, p <0.05 respectively, q-test). Nicotine (6 × 10-5mol/L) treatment have no significant hicrease compared to the control group (0.21±0.08 ng/mL vs. 0.17+0.05 ng/mL, p >0.05, q-test). The peak effects occurred at the nicothie concentration of 6 × 10-7mol/L.
Conclusions: Nicotine can produce the beneficial effect on macrophage. Nicotine treatment can activate macrophage to produce TNF-α. Thus, nicotine can be a mechanism on the development of atherosclerosis.
The thermal evolution of the interface formed by room temperature (RT) deposition of Ni atoms (coverage 0.1, 0.5, 1.2 ML) onto a Ge(111)-c(2 × 8) surface has been studied with the use of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Atomically resolved STM images revealed that, at RT, the boundaries between the different c(2 × 8) domains acted as nucleation sites for Ni atoms. After annealing the surface with deposited material at 473 to 673 K the formation of nano-sized islands of NixGey compounds was observed. In addition, the occurrence of ring-like structures was recorded. Based on the dual-polarity images the latter were assigned to Ni atoms adsorbed on Ge adatoms.
The genetic diversity and differentiation of five populations of Taiwania cryptomerioides Hayata in mainland China were investigated using inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR). In comparison with other coniferous species, T. cryptomerioides from mainland China possesses little genetic variation, particularly at the level of individual populations (the percentage of polymorphic loci, Nei’s gene diversity and Shannon’s indices of diversity at the species and population levels are 38.02%, 0.1326, 0.1986 and 9.27%, 0.035, 0.0518 respectively). In contrast, the level of population differentiation is much higher (GST: 0.7269; Shannon’s genetic differentiation: 0.7392; Hickory è B: 0.668; AMOVA genetic differentiation: 72.37%). The genetic divergence of pairs of populations was not significantly correlated with the geographical distance separating them. Current patterns of genetic variation were related to biogeographic history and the small population size. On the basis of these findings, we discuss the development of conservation strategies for this endangered species.
The rapid global spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Although COVID-19 is a class B infectious disease, the prevention and control measures used for it in China are commonly used for class A infectious diseases. In the process of the spread of the disease, hospitals will be a key point to influence this pandemic. To prevent and control nosocomial infection of SARS-CoV-2, methods and measures were formulated from the relevant laws and regulations of the National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China, practical experience of the pandemic, and evidence-based medicine in the hospitals fighting this disease. Thus, this report may provide useful recommendations for the prevention and control of COVID-19 in hospitals and clinics.
This paper concerns the problem of designing an EID-based robust output-feedback modified repetitive-control system (ROFMRCS) that provides satisfactory aperiodic-disturbance rejection performance for a class of plants with time-varying structured uncertainties. An equivalent-input-disturbance (EID) estimator is added to the ROFMRCS that estimates the influences of all types of disturbances and compensates them. A continuous-discrete two-dimensional model is built to describe the EID-based ROFMRCS that accurately presents the features of repetitive control, thereby enabling the control and learning actions to be preferentially adjusted. A robust stability condition for the closed-loop system is given in terms of a linear matrix inequality. It yields the parameters of the repetitive controller, the output-feedback controller, and the EID-estimator. Finally, a numerical example demonstrates the validity of the method.
In this study, a methodology was presented to predict density stratified flows in the near-field of submerged bodies. The energy equation in temperature form was solved coupled with momentum and mass conservation equations. Linear stratification was achieved by the definition of the density as a function of temperature. At first, verifications were performed for the stratified flows passing a submerged horizontal circular cylinder, showing excellent agreement with available experimental data. The ability of the method to cope with variable density was demonstrated. Different turbulence models were used for different Re numbers and flow states. Based on the numerical methods proposed in this paper, the stratified flow was studied for the real scale benchmark DAPRA Suboff submarine. The approach used the VOF method for tracing the free surface. Turbulence was implemented with a k − ω based Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) approach. The effects of submarine speed, depth and density gradient on the free surface wave pattern were quantitatively analyzed. It was shown that, with the increasing of the speed of the submarine, the wavelength and wave height of the free surface wave were gradually increasing. The wave height of the free surface wave was gradually reduced as the submarine’s depth increased. Relative to the speed and submarine depth, the changes of the gradient density gradient have negligible effects on the free surface wave field.
Whether patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) and resistance to aspirin found by in vitro tests are at a greater risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) is controversial.
To identify any association between resistance to aspirin found by in vitro tests and MACEs in patients with unstable angina pectoris (UAP).
Previously we demonstrated that 38 of 104 patients admitted to hospital with UAP showed resistance to aspirin using whole blood aggregometry (WBA). In the present study, the same cohort was observed during a 6-month follow-up. The primary end points were MACEs, including cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, revascularization, stroke/transient ischemic attack, or worsening UAP that required the patient to be readmitted to hospital.
During the course of 6 months, only 1 patient in the aspirin-sensitive group was lost in follow-up, and MACEs occurred in 24 patients. Patients with resistance to aspirin found by WBA did not apparently have a higher risk of MACEs compared with patients who were aspirin-sensitive (29% vs 20%, P > 0.05). Cox regression analysis showed that resistance to aspirin found by WBA appeared to have no significant correlation with 6-month clinical outcome (HR 1.56, 95% CI 0.70-3.48, P > 0.05).
Aspirin resistance, as defined by WBA, was not associated with an increased risk of MACEs in patients with UAP in a 6-month follow-up. Clarification of the clinical significance of aspirin responsiveness detected by platelet function tests requires further investigation in larger longitudinal studies.
Objective: To analysis and extract the features of acupuncture recipes for dysmenorrhea.
Methods: By searching the major Chinese and English databases, we included the clinical literature with defined point-based recipes and analyzed the feature of those.
Results: (1) the most frequently selected points for dysmenorrhea in order were: San Yin Jiao(SP6), Guan Yuan (RN4), Zhong Ji (CV3), Qi Hai (CV6), Ci Liao (BL32), Di Ji (SP8), Shen Shu (BL23). (2) the major characteristics of point selection was combination of local points and distant points which located on Ren meridian and spleen meridian. (3) the major treatment methods were normal acupuncture, then acupuncture combined with moxibustion or auricular therapy, for the latter, were especially stressed and confirmed by many studies.
Conclusion: The acupuncture recipes for dysmenorrhea were usually made by consideration of combining local and distant points, utilizing multiple methods especially auricular therapy.