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Open access

Laila Vilmane and Evita Straumite

Abstract

Celiac disease is a permanent enteropathy caused by the ingestion of gluten, a protein occurring in wheat, rye, and barley. Gluten-free products often have a shorter shelf life, lower quality, and not so pronounced flavour. Therefore, it is necessary to develop new gluten-free products with higher quality and pronounced taste. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of soy flour on the yellow maize-amaranth dough rheological properties and bread quality. To determine the influence of soy flour on gluten-free dough rheological properties and bread quality, soy flour was added at 45%, 50% and 60% to yellow maize flour basis. To study the effect of the amount of water used in the recipe on dough rheological properties and bread quality, each sample (n=7) was prepared in two versions: one with the dough yield 196, and the other with the dough yield 252. The main quality parameters of dough and bread were determined using the following methods: the firmness and resilience of dough, as well as the hardness of bread slice – with a TA.XT.plus Texture Analyser; moisture content of dough – with a thermostat; moisture content of bread crumb – with a Precisa XM 120 at the temperature of 110 °C; and color of bread crumb – in the CIE L*a*b* color system using a ColorTec-PCM/PSM. The best results of dough rheological properties were obtained for samples with dough yield 196, but the best quality of bread – for samples with dough yield 252. It was proved that soy flour improves not only the dough firmness and resilience but also the volume, texture, hardness, moisture content and color of gluten-free bread. No significant differences in the influence of soy flour on dough rheological properties and bread quality were found between the samples with various added amounts of soy flour (45%, 50%, or 60%).

Open access

Linda Brunava, Laila Vilmane and Sanita Zute

Abstract

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of applied nitrogen fertilizer rate on β-glucan content in oat (Avena sativa L.) grains. The study was carried out at the State Stende Cereal Breeding Institute from 2011 to 2014. Three nitrogen surface fertiliser treatments (80, 120 and 160 kg·ha-1) were applied on one husked oat (variety 'Lizete') and two naked oat genotypes (breeding lines 'S-156' and '33793'). The content of β-glucan in naked oat genotypes was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than in the husked genotype. The difference in β-glucan content between the naked breeding lines was not significant (p > 0.05). Significant (p < 0.05) differences in β-glucan content were observed between nitrogen treatments only for husked oat genotype 'Lizete'. Effect of growing season on β-glucan content was significant (p < 0.05) for both (naked and husked) oat genotypes. β-glucan content of naked oat breeding lines ('S-156' and '33793') was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in 2011 comparing with 2012 and 2013, due to differences in precipitation during the grain filling period.

Open access

Laila Vilmane, Sanita Zute, Evita Straumīte and Ruta Galoburda

Abstract

The rising attention globally on the use of oats and the beneficial effect of oat compounds in nutrition has also increased interest in oat production in Latvia. The aim of this study was to evaluate protein, amino acid and gluten content in husked and hulless oat grains grown in organic and conventional farming systems. Two hulless oat (Avena sativa L.) genotypes - the breeding line '33793' and the variety 'Stendes Emilija' and one husked oat variety 'Lizete' from the State Stende Cereal Breeding Institute - were cultivated in 2013 under conventional farming methods using three nitrogen (N) application rates (80, 120, and 160 kg·ha-1) and under organic farming. Protein content was determined by Kjeldahl method, amino acid composition by high-performance liquid chromatography method using Waters AccQ Tag, and gluten content by Sandwich R5 ELISA. The results showed that oat genotype had significant effect p < 0.001) on protein and gluten content, as well as on amino acid composition. The applied amount of fertiliser did not have significant effect on the studied quality parameters, but the growing system did (p < 0.001). Higher content of protein was observed in hulless oat samples, compared to that in husked oat samples. There was also a significant difference (p = 0.01) in the total amount of amino acids between husked and hulless oat samples. In hulless oat variety 'Stendes Emilija' and hulless breeding line '33793' the content of gluten was similar and two times higher than in the husked oat variety 'Lizete'. Further breeding work is necessary to obtain oats with a lower content of gluten-like proteins.