The compound magnesium diboride (MgB2) has been well-known since the 1950s; however, its superconducting properties were unknown. Intrinsic characteristics of MgB2 make this material a promising candidate for technological applications, although the low value of the irreversibility field and the decrease in critical current density with the increase in the magnetic field considerably reduce its utility. The present work aimed to study the effect of carbon-based doping on anelastic properties of MgB2 as measured by mechanical spectroscopy. The samples were prepared by using the powder-intube method. The samples were made with 5, 7.5, and 10 wt.% of silicon carbide (SiC). The results reveal complex mechanical loss spectra caused by the interaction between point defects and surface defects in the crystalline lattice of MgB2.
M.R. Silva, L.B.S. Silva, D. Rodrigues Junior and C.R. Grandini
L.H.O. Wadt, A. B. Baldoni, V. S. Silva, T. Campos, K. Martins, V.C.R. Azevedo, L.R. Mata, A.A. Botin, E.S. S. Hoogerheide, H. Tonini and Alexandre M. Sebbenn
The aim of this study was to investigate variation in mating system among three Brazilian Amazon populations of the tree Bertholletia excelsa with different levels of anthropogenic interventions. We collected open-pollinated seeds from one natural population, remnant trees dispersed in a pasture, and trees from a plantation. Outcrossing rate not varied among the populations and indicates that all seeds were originated from outcrossing (tm=1.0). Mating among relatives was significant higher in the plantation than forest and pasture populations, probably due the fact that many trees are related in the plantation. Correlated mating was significantly higher in pasture (rp=0.47) and plantation (rp=0.51) than in the natural population (rp=0.22), suggesting that trees in natural population are pollinated by a higher number of pollen donors. The paternity correlation was significantly higher within (rp(w)=0.41) than among fruits (rp(a)=0.18), showing a higher probability to find full-sibs within than among fruits. The fixation index was generally lower in seed trees than in their seedlings, suggesting selection for heterozygous individuals from seedling to adult stages. Progeny arrays collected from the natural population had a lower proportion of pairwise full-sibs than in pasture and plantation and higher variance effective size (2.75) than trees in pasture (2.15) and plantations (2.22). Results highlight that seed collections for conservation, breeding and reforestation programs preferentially should be carried out in natural populations due low proportion highest variance effective size within progeny.
Alex S. Freitas, António J.B. Figueiredo, Andréia L. R. de Freitas, Vinícius D. Rodrigues, Alexandre A. C. da Cunha, Fernando F. Deusdará and Manuel J. Coelho e Silva
Measurements of maturity depend on the biological system considered since differences are often found in performance and body size in subjects of the same chronological age. The objective of this study was to identify associations between biological maturation, body morphology and physical performance in girls aged from 8.0 to 15.9 year-old and to verify the bone age in obese girls and compare it with chronological age. For that purpose 2040 (11.9 ± 2.3 years) school girls from Montes Claros, participated in this study. Regular anthropometric measures as height and body mass were taken. Triceps, biceps, subscapular, abdominal, suprailiac and calf skinfolds were also registered. Physical performance was assessed trough the test of a standing long jump, handgrip strength and 20 m multistage shuttle run. Maturational status, the average age at menarche and identification of PHV (maturity off set) were determined by means of the retrospective method. Girls with the BMI above the 95th percentile got their bone age evaluated through X-ray of the left hand/wrist, in accordance with the FELS method. It was possible to find an average age at menarche of 11.30 ± 0.70, while the average age at PHV was 12.17 ± 0.71 years of age. It was observed that both body composition and physical performance showed a tendency to increase with advancing age. However, when controlling the effect of maturation, despite having higher values in body composition the post-menarche girls group did not show higher levels of physical performance. In all age groups, obese girls showed mean rates of bone age higher than chronologic age (12.25 ± 2.09 and 14.09 ± 2.35, respectively, p=0.000). Chronological age should be used with caution when evaluating obese teenagers as it may underestimate biological age.