The aim of this paper is to study, in mean square sense, a class of random fractional linear differential equation where the initial condition and the forcing term are assumed to be second-order random variables. The solution stochastic process of its associated Cauchy problem is constructed combining the application of a mean square chain rule for differentiating second-order stochastic processes and the random Fröbenius method. To conduct our study, first the classical Caputo derivative is extended to the random framework, in mean square sense. Furthermore, a sufficient condition to guarantee the existence of this operator is provided. Afterwards, the solution of a random fractional initial value problem is built under mild conditions. The main statistical functions of the solution stochastic process are also computed. Finally, several examples illustrate our theoretical findings.