Prepared powder polyhydroxybutyrate – chitosan - calcium phosphate composite system with 10 wt % of biopolymer component can be utilized as biocement which is characterized by the prolonged setting time and achieves wash out resistance after 5 minutes of setting. The origin powder tetracalcium phosphate/nanomonetite agglomerates were coated with the thin layer of biopolymer which decelerates both the transformation rate of calcium phosphates and hardening process of composites. The porosity of hardened composite was around 62% and the compressive strength (8 MPa) was close to trabecular bone. No cytotoxicity of composite resulted from live/dead staining of osteoblasts cultured on substrates.
The tetracalcium phosphate/nanomonetite (TTCPMH) biocements with the addition of sodium alginate were prepared by mechanical homogenization of powder mixture with hardening liquid containing sodium alginate. The effect of various viscosity of different alginates on properties of TTCPMH cement mixture was investigated. The medium viscous (MED) alginate had a more negative effect on setting process and compressive strength than low viscous (LOW) alginate. An approx. 50% decrease in mechanical properties (compressive strengths, Young´s modulus, work of fracture (WOF)) was revealed after an addition of 0.25 wt % with rapid fall above 1 wt % of LOW alginate in biocement. A statistically significant difference in the WOF was found between of 0.25 and 0.5 LOW alginate biocements (p<0.035) whereas no statistical differences were revealed between WOF of 0.5 and 1 LOW alginate biocements (p˃0.357). In the microstructure of composite cements, the increased amounts of granular or finer needle-like nanohydroxyapatite particles arranged into the form of more separated spherical agglomerates were observed. A low cytotoxicity of cement extracts based on measurement of cell proliferation was revealed.
Neodymium niobate NdNbO4 (NNO) and tantalate NdTaO4 (NTO) thin films (~100 nm) were prepared by sol-gel/spin-coating process on Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3/Al2O3 substrates with annealing at 1000°C. The precursors of films were synthesized using Nb or Ta tartrate complexes. The XRD results of NNO and NTO films confirmed tetragonal T-NdNbO4 and T-NdTaO4 phases, respectively, with traces of monoclinic MNdNbO4 and M´-NdTaO4. The surface morphology and topography were investigated by SEM and AFM analysis. NTO was smoother with roughness 5.24 nm in comparison with NNO (6.95 nm). In the microstructure of NNO, small spherical (~ 20-50 nm) T-NdNbO4 and larger needle-like particles (~100 nm) of M-NdNbO4 phase were observed. The compact clusters composed of fine spherical T-NdTaO4 particles (~ 50 nm) and cuboidal M´-NdTaO4 particles (~ 100 nm) were found in NTO. The results of this work can contribute to formation of different polymorphs of films for the application in environmental electrolytic thin film devices.
Samarium niobate SmNbO4 (SNO) and tantalate SmTaO4 (STO) thin films (~100 nm) were prepared by sol-gel/spin-coating process on alumina substrates with PZT interlayer and annealing at 1000°C. The precursors of films were synthesized using Nb or Ta tartrate complexes. The improvement of the crystallinity of monoclinic M′-SmTaO4 phase via heating was observed through the coexistence of small amounts of tetragonal T-SmTa7O19 phase in STO precursor at 1000°C. The XRD results of SNO and STO films confirmed monoclinic M-SmNbO4 and M′-SmTaO4 phases, respectively, with traces of orthorhombic O-SmNbO4 (in SNO). In STO film, the single monoclinic M′-SmTaO4 phase was revealed. The surface morphology and topography of thin films were investigated by SEM and AFM analysis. STO film was smoother with roughness 3.2 nm in comparison with SNO (6.3 nm). In the microstructure of SNO film, small spherical (~50 nm) and larger cuboidal particles (~100 nm) of the SmNbO4 phase were observed. In STO, compact clusters composed of fine spherical SmTaO4 particles (~20-50 nm) were found. Effect of samarium can contribute to the formation different polymorphs of these films for the application to environmental electrolytic thin film devices.
The aim of our study was to examine the effects of passive and active cell seeding techniques on in vitro chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) isolated from rat bone marrow and seeded on porous biopolymer scaffolds based on polyhydroxybutyrate/chitosan (PCH) blends. This paper is focused on the distribution of the cells on and in the scaffolds, since it influences the uniformity of the created extracellular matrix (ECM), as well as the homogenity of the distribution of chondrogenic markers in vitro which ultimately affects the quality of the newly created tissue after in vivo implantation. The three types of cell-scaffold constructs were examined by: fluorescence microscopy, SEM, histology and quantitative analysis of the glycosaminoglycans after chondrogenic cultivation. The results demonstrated that the active cells seeded via the centrifugation of the cell suspension onto the scaffold guaranteed an even distribution of cells on the bulk of the scaffold and the uniform secretion of the ECM products by the differentiated cells.
The aim was to investigate the enamel health benefits of a novel toothpaste with active tetracalcium phosphate/monetite mixtures under de/remineralization cycling. The enamel de/remineralization cycling protocol was consisted of demineralization in 1% aqueous solution of citric acid at pH 3.6 with following treatment with toothpastes and soaking in remineralization storage solution. Effectiveness of toothpastes to promote remineralization was evaluated by surface microhardness measurements, enamel erosion depth, analysis of surface roughness and fluorescent optical method. The novel tetracalcium phosphate/monetite toothpaste had the same remineralization potential as commercial calcium silicate/phosphate toothpaste and significantly higher than control storage solution group (p<0.05). Surface roughness was significantly lower after addition of fluorides to dentifrice (p<0.05). The enamel erosion depth was significantly reduced by applying toothpastes as compared to negative control (p<0.05) and did not differ from calcium silicate/phosphate toothpaste (p>0.66). The results showed that dentifrice formulations containing active tetracalcium phosphate/monetite mixture with or without fluoride addition had excellent enamel remineralization potential under de/remineralization cycling and successfully promote remineralization of enamel with daily using in the form of toothpaste.