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K. Konopka, L. Litynska-Dobrzynska and J. Dutkiewicz

Methods of enhancing of mechanical properties of ceramic-metal composites, particularly fracture toughness by introducing dispersed metal particles such as W, Mo, Ni, Al, etc to a ceramic matrix are well known. However, the dependence of the microstructures, especially interfaces, on the properties of composites is not well understood yet. Moreover, the ceramic-metal interfaces play a crucial role in tailoring the composite properties.

In this paper we examine the alumina matrix composite with NiAl2O4 spinel phase and present the SEM and TEM studies of spinel distribution, size and crystallographic orientation. The composites were prepared by sintering Al2O3 and Ni powders below the melting point of Ni in argon. During the process of sintering the spinel phase appeared. It was not homogeneously distributed in the alumina matrix. The spinel phase areas were linked together and constituted an almost continuous form. We observed that the distribution and size of spinel influenced the fracture toughness of the composite.

Open access

K. Stan, L. Litynska-Dobrzynska, A. Góral and A. Wierzbicka-Miernik

Microstructure of conventionally cast and melt spun Al91Mn7Fe2 alloy was examined by X-ray diffraction, SEM and TEM techniques. Three different phases were found in a mould cast ingot: Al6(Mn, Fe), Al4(Mn, Fe) and aluminium solid solution. Rapidly quenched ribbons cast using melt spinning technique with different speed values of rotating wheel: 25, 30 and 36 m/s had average width in a range of 30-50 μm. It was found that ribbons contain quasicrystalline particles with different sizes and shapes including large dendrites in a range of micrometers and smaller spherical particles below 1 μm embedded in an aluminium matrix. Composition of these particles was similar to the Al4(Mn, Fe) phase. Also quasicrystals in the form of eutectic were observed with slightly different composition close to the Al6(Mn, Fe) phase. All observed particles revealed 2, 3 and 5- fold symmetry, typical for icosahedral quasicrystals. Increase in microhardness up to 274 HV for melt spun ribbon comparing to 141 HV for the as-cast ingot was observed due to a change in phase composition and refinement of the phases. Thermal stability of quasicrystalline phase in the ribbon was examined by annealing in different temperatures. Temperatures for thermal treatment were chosen based on DSC curve which contains the exothermic peak in the temperature range 300-500°C. Analysis of ribbons annealed for 30 minutes at 400°C showed that transformation of quasicrystals to stable crystalline phase starts at quasicrystal/Al-matrix interfaces. After annealing for 4 hours at 500°C only the Al6(Mn, Fe) phase and aluminium solid solution were observed in the ribbon microstructure.

Open access

H. Paul, L. Lityńska-Dobrzyńska, M. Miszczyk and M. Prażmowski

The structure near the interface of bimetallic strips strongly influences their properties. In this work, the interfacial layers of explosively welded aluminium and copper plates were investigated by means of a scanning electron microscope (SEM), equipped with a high resolution system for local orientation measurements (SEMFEG/EBSD), and a transmission electron microscope (TEM), equipped with energy dispersive spectrometry (EDX) for the analysis of chemical composition changes.

The SEMFEG/EBSD-based local orientation measurements in the areas close to the interface, in both sheets, revealed fine-grained layers characterized by the clearly marked tendency of the copper-type rolling texture formation. The texture was described by an increased density of the orientations near the {112}<111>, {123}<634>and {110}<112>positions. The internal microstructure of the intermetallic inclusion is mostly composed of dendrites. The electron diffractions and the TEM/EDX chemical composition measurements in the intermetallic inclusions revealed only crystalline phases, both equilibrium and ’metastable’. Additionally, no significant regularity in the phase distribution with respect to the parent sheets was observed.

Open access

K. Bryła, J. Dutkiewicz, L. Litynska-Dobrzynska, L.L. Rokhlin and P. Kurtyka

The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of the number of equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) passes on the microstructure and mechanical properties of AZ31 magnesium alloy. The microstructure after two and four passes of ECAP at 423 and 523 K was investigated by means of optical and transmission electron microscopy. The mechanical properties were carried out using Vickers microhardness measurements and compression test. The grain refinement in AZ31 alloy was obtained using ECAP routes down to 1,5 μm at 423 K. Processes of dynamic recrystallization during ECAP were observed. It was found that a gradual decrease of grain size occurs with the increasing of number of ECAP passes. The grain refinement increases mechanical properties at ambient temperature, such as Vickers microhardness and compression strength proportionally to d-0.5.

Open access

K. Bryła, J. Dutkiewicz, L.L. Rokhlin, L. Litynska-Dobrzynska, K. Mroczka and P. Kurtyka

The influence of ageing and Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg-2.5%Tb-0.78%Sm alloy has been examined. The microhardness changes during ageing at 200ºC show a slight increase. The aged microstructure at maximum hardness contains Mg12(Tb,Sm) - metastable β’ phase of size about 2-10 nm as dispersed precipitates. The orientation relationship between β’ phase and the matrix was found as follows:(0001)Mg || (1¯10)β′, [21¯10]Mg || [116]β′. The ECAP passes were performed by two procedures: “I” - four passes at 350ºC; “II” - one pass at 370ºC, second pass at 340ºC and third pass at 310ºC. The grain size was reduced about 200 times as a results of ECAP process according “I” and “II” procedure. The grain refinement by ECAP improves significantly the compression yield strength and hardness. The Hall-Petch relationship was confirmed basing on microhardness measurements and the grain size after ECAP. The Mg24(Tb,Sm)5 and Mg41(Sm,Tb)5 particles smaller than 150 nm are located mainly at grain and subgrain boundaries and they prevent grain growth during ECAP processing. The microstructure evolution during ECAP can be described as dynamic recovery and continuous and discontinuous dynamic recrystallization.

Open access

W. Maziarz, P. Czaja, T. Czeppe, A. Góral, L. Litynska-Dobrzynska, Ł. Major and J. Dutkiewicz

Alloys with constant Ni/Mn ratio equal to 1.01 of nominal compositions Ni44Mn43.5Sn12.5-xAlx (x = 0, 1, 2 and 3) were induction cast, homogenized in vacuum for 6 hours at 1000ºC, annealed for 1 h at 900 and water quenched for solution treatment (ST). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies revealed that the quenched alloys undergo martensitic transformation with martensite start temperatures (Ms) ranging from - 140 up to - 80ºC. An increase of Ms temperature with increasing of the aluminum content as well as the linear relationship between Ms and the conductive electron concentration (e/a) was observed. DSC has been used also to estimate the associated entropy change from the transformation heat Q and peak position temperature Tp; corresponding to ΔS ≈ Q/Tp. X-Ray diffraction phase analyses performed at room temperature proved that in all ST alloys the L21 Heusler structure is present. However, a different degree of order of this phase was observed, what was manifested by a decrease of intensity of the 111 superlattice reflection of the L21 structure with an increase of Al content. The ordering behavior was also proven by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations, particularly electron diffraction patterns. The evolution of microstructure after different treatments was also illustrated by light microscopy observations.

Open access

M. Chmielewski, J. Dutkiewicz, D. Kalinski, L. Litynska-Dobrzynska, K. Pietrzak and A. Strojny-Nedza

Brittleness is the main technical limitation on a wide use of advanced ceramic materials. To overcome this problem, ceramic-metal composites are commonly applied. A principal advantage of ceramic-metal composite materials is their higher resistance to brittle fracture. An increase of fracture toughness depends on the type, amount, size and shape of a metallic component. The metallic phase can additionally modify physical, mechanical and thermal properties of materials.

The results of experiments concerning a manufacturing process of Mo-Al2O3 composite materials obtained by the hot pressing method were presented. Two powder mixtures with different volume fraction of aluminium oxide were prepared in a planetary ball mill. The hot pressing process allowed to obtain well-densified metal matrix composites (~99% of a theoretical density). Microstructural observations of sinters were conducted using scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Very stable bonding between metal and ceramic grains was observed. Complex investigations of the physical and mechanical properties of obtained molybdenum-alumina composite materials seem to be very promising from an application point of view.

Open access

A. Góral, L. Litynska-Dobrzynska, W. Zórawski, K. Berent and J. Wojewoda-Budka

The aim of the study was to characterize nanostructured Al2O3-13TiO2 coatings deposited by plasma spraying on a grit blasted steel substrate. The Al2O3-13TiO2 coatings were characterized using scanning and transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. Obtained coatings possessed a unique microstructure consisting of fully melted regions with the microstructure similar to a typical plasma sprayed lamellar morphology as the conventional coatings and areas comprising unmelted or partially melted nanosized particles. The analysis showed that most of the α-Al2O3 phase from the nanostructured powders transformed into γ-Al2O3 phase after plasma spraying process. Moreover, the presence of amorphous phase was also observed.

Open access

K. Stan, L. Litynska-Dobrzynska, P. Ochin, A. Wierzbicka-Miernik, A. Góral and J. Wojewoda-Budka

Influence of Ti, V, Cr, Zr, and Mo additions on microstructure and mechanical properties of the Al91Mn7Fe2 quasicrystalline alloy produced by the melt spinning technique has been studied. It was found that the microstructure of obtained all ribbons was similar and consists of spherical or dendritic icosahedral quasicrystalline particles embedded in an aluminium matrix coexisting with small fraction of intermetallic phase. Comporing DSC curves obtained for each sample it was observed that the alloy with Mo addition exhibits the best thermal stability among prepared alloys. Addition of molybdenum caused a significant shift of the main exothermic peak corresponding to temperature of quasicrystalline phase decomposition from 450ºC for ternary alloy to about 550ºC for quaternary composition. Microhardness measured for all prepared alloys were similar with the mean value of about 200 HV only alloy with Zr addition exhibited higher microhardness of about 270 HV caused by strengthening effect of Zr localized in the grains of aluminium matrix.

Open access

T. Czeppe, G.F. Korznikova, A.W. Korznikov, L. Litynska-Dobrzynska and Z. Swiatek

Some attention in physical metallurgy is devoted to the mechanisms of decomposition of the disordered phases via eutectoid transformation accompanied by the atomic ordering. In case of the non-pearlitic modes of transformation this concerns intermetallic phases of the general description A3B-A3C. The application of intensive deformation like HPT may introduce opposite mechanisms introducing some degree of the metastable disordered phase structure at room temperature. The paper presents results of the phase composition and microstructure studies of the alloys of composition Ni75AlxVy (where x =15, 10, 5 and y =10, 15, 20), which undergo the solid-state eutectoid decomposition at temperature 1281 K, in the equilibrium conditions. The alloys achieved by the cold crucible levitation method were later intensively deformed with the method of high pressure torsion (HPT). The alloys after HPT revealed homogenous, metastable L12 (Ni3Al) structure in place of the eutectoid product L12-D022. The average size of the Sherrer’s coherent diffraction volumes did not exceed 9 nm, suggesting nano-structure of the material. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution electron microscopy (HRTEM) revealed that the micro- and nano- deformation twins were the main feature of the microstructure, dividing volume into cells of the sizes similar to the coherent volumes. The HPT deformation did not influence atomic order. The results are compared with those achieved for the injection cast samples.