S. Zhang, L. Qi, C. Chen, X. Li, W. Song, R. Chen and S. Han
This screening study analyzed ploidy levels by counting the chromosome number of 61 Aigeiros cultivars grown in China. Triploid Aigeiros has been found in four of these cultivars: Populus x euramericana (Dode) Guiner cv. Wuhei-1, P. × Liaohenica, P. Langfangensis-3 Wang (P. deltodide Barry cv. “Shanhaiguan” × P. simonii × P. pyramidalis-12 +Ulmus pumila Linn.), and P. × euramericana (Dode) Guinier. cv. “Zhonglin-46”. The karyotype analysis indicates that triploid Aigeiros might be derived from original allotriploid. Because growth of the triploid trees was faster than their respective diploid hybrids or clones in the plantations where we collected the materials, we expect that they will play a significant role in breeding, reforestation and fiber production in China.
Y. Zhang, C. L. Zhong, Y. Chen, Q. B. Jiang, Z. Chen, S. Nie and K. Pinyopusarerk
Casuarina equisetifolia is an important tree species in the tropical and subtropical zones of Asia, Africa and the Pacific. There is an increasing interest in producing intra- and inter-specific hybrids of casuarina species. Conventional bagging controlled pollination method yielded very low fruit set and poor seed germination. High temperature and humidity in the pollination bags appeared to have instigated unfavorable conditions for pollination and fertilization mechanism. In this study, a novel approach was developed by conducting pollination in closed chambers which functioned like pollination bags. Fruit set and seed germination rate increased from 7.0% to 89.9%, and 8.1% to 51.8% respectively compared with the conventional bagging controlled pollination method. Based on the results, a controlled pollination glasshouse with 10 separated chambers has been designed to produce multiple hybrid combinations in a single pollination procedure.
Steven L. Alderman, Chen Song, Serban C. Moldoveanu and Stephen K. Cole
The relatively volatile nature of the particulate matter fraction of e-cigarette aerosols presents an experimental challenge with regard to particle size distribution measure-ments. This is particularly true for instruments requiring a high degree of aerosol dilution. This was illustrated in a previous study, where average particle diameters in the 10-50 nm range were determined by a high-dilution, electrical mobility method. Total particulate matter (TPM) masses calculated based on those diameters were orders of magnitude smaller than gravimetrically determined TPM. This discrepancy was believed to result from almost complete particle evaporation at the dilution levels of the electrical mobility analysis. The same study described a spectral transmission measurement of e-cigarette particle size in an undiluted state, and reported particles from 210-380 nm count median diameter. Observed particle number concentrations were in the 109 particles/cm3 range. Additional particle size measurements described here also found e-cigarette particle size to be in the 260-320 nm count median diameter range. Cambridge filter pads have been used for decades to determine TPM yields of tobacco burning cigarettes, and collection of e-cigarette TPM by fibrous filters is predicted to be a highly efficient process over a wide range of filtration flow rates. The results presented in this work provide support for this hypothesis.
Described here is a study in which e-cigarette aerosols were collected on Cambridge filters with adsorbent traps placed downstream in an effort to capture any material passing through the filter. Amounts of glycerin, propylene glycol, nicotine, and water were quantified on the filter and downstream trap. Glycerin, propylene glycol, and nicotine were effciently captured (> 98%) by the upstream Cambridge filter, and a correlation was observed between filtration efficiency and the partial vapor pressure of each component. The present analysis was largely inconclusive with regard to filter efficiency and particle-vapor partitioning of water. [Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 26 (2014) 183-190]
J. Wang, X. Y. Kang, D. L. Li, H. W. Chen and P. D. Zhang
Diploid (2n) eggs were induced by treating developing embryo sacs of Populus with colchicine solution, in order to produce triploid plants. The optimal pollinated time of female catkins was confirmed as timing point for each treatment. When female catkins of P. pseudo-simonii x P. nigra ‘Zheyin3#’ had become 5.62 ± 0.13 cm long 84 h after they emerged from their bract scales and all stigmas were exposed, pistils all over the entire catkin had optimal stigma receptivity. Observation of paraffin sections showed that embryo sac development of ‘Zheyin3#’, which initiated 12 h before pollination and finished 132 h after pollination, was a successive and asynchronous process. Generative cell division of pollen of the male parent P. x beijingensis took place 3-16 h after pollination. Catkins of 18-96 h after pollination of ‘Zheyin3#’ were treated with colchicine solution. In the progeny, twenty three triploids were detected by chromosome counting and the highest rate of triploids was 66.7% in one treatment. The rate of triploid yield was positively correlated with the frequency of four-nucleate embryo sacs (r = 0.6721, p = 0.0981) and was not significantly correlated with the percentages of uni-, twoand eight-nucleate embryo sac (r = -0.1667, p = 0.7210, r = -0.3069, p = 0.5031 and r = 0.0189, p = 0.9679, respectively), suggesting that the third mitotic division of embryo sac may be the effective stage to induce 2n eggs. Through this approach, completely homozygous 2n eggs can be produced. Its significance for plant breeding is discussed.
Yiming Zhao, Baitong Chen, Jin Zhang, Ying Ding, Jin Mao and Lihong Zhou
This study investigates the evolution of diabetics’ concerns based on the analysis of terms in the Diabetes category logs on the Yahoo! Answers website. Two sets of question-and-answer (Q&A) log data were collected: one from December 2, 2005 to December 1, 2006; the other from April 1, 2013 to March 31, 2014. Network analysis and a t-test were performed to analyze the differences in diabetics’ concerns between these two data sets. Community detection and topic evolution were used to reveal detailed changes in diabetics’ concerns in the examined period. Increases in average node degree and graph density imply that the vocabulary size that diabetics use to post questions decreases while the scope of questions has become more focused. The networks of key terms in the Q&A log data of 2005–2006 and 2013–2014 are significantly different according to the t-test analysis of the degree centrality and betweenness centrality. Specifically, there is a shift in diabetics’ focus in that they have become more concerned about daily life and other nonmedical issues, including diet, food, and nutrients. The recent changes and the evolution paths of diabetics’ concerns were visualized using an alluvial diagram. The food- and diet-related terms have become prominent, as deduced from the visualization results.
Ranjith K. Kalleda, Inyee Y. Han, Joe E. Toler, Feng Chen, Hyun J. Kim and Paul L. Dawson
Wild caught shrimp can have a shortened shelf life compared to farm raised shrimp due to handling and on-ship limitations. The loss of freshness in shrimp is partly due to autolytic reactions caused by endogenous enzymes such as polyphenol oxidase. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of sulfites combined with modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the shelf life of non-frozen shrimp. Fresh South Atlantic white shrimp were subjected to one of four treatments, no bisulfite rinse-air packaged, 1.25% bisulfite rinse-air packaged, 1.25% bisulfite rinse-MAP (60% CO2, 18% O2, 22% N2) and 1.25% bisulfite rinse-MAP (36% CO2, 64%N2). The quality and freshness of shrimp was measured by determining total aerobic bacterial populations, package gas headspace analysis, shrimp volatiles (GC-MS), meat pH, nucleotide degradation, and visual analysis. Fresh non-frozen shrimp treated with a combination of sulfites and MAP maintained the shelf life of fresh shrimp up to 10 days while shrimp in non-MAP without sulfite and non-MAP with sulfite developed black spots within 2 and 6 days, respectively. Both MAP treatments slowed bacterial growth while the MAP with high CO2 and with O2 was more effective in preventing off odors and nucleotide degeneration.
C. S. Chen, X. D. Xie, S. Y. Cao, T. G. Liu, L. W. Lin, X. H. Chen, Q. C. Liu, J. C. Kuang and Y. Xiao
Multi-walled carbon nanotubes/Mg-doped ZnO (MWNTs/Zn1-xMgxO) nanohybrids were prepared by co-precipitation method, and their photocatalytic activity for methyl orange (MO) was studied. Experimental results showed that Mg-doped ZnO nanoparticles were successfully deposited on the surface of MWNTs under annealing at 450 °C and 550 °C. The resultant MWNTs/Zn0.9Mg0.1O nanohybrids had better photocatalytic activity for degradation of methyl orange than pure ZnO: the rates of MO photodegradation were 100 % and 30 % for 1 h, respectively. The enhancement in the photocatalytic activity was attributed to the excellent electronic properties of MWNTs and Mg-doping.
This study aims to design a novel air cleaning facility which conforms to the current situation in China, and moreover can satisfy our demand on air purification under the condition of poor air quality, as well as discuss the development means of a prototype product. Air conditions in the operating room of a hospital were measured as the research subject of this study. First, a suitable turbulence model and boundary conditions were selected and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software was used to simulate indoor air distribution. The analysis and comparison of the simulation results suggested that increasing the area of air supply outlets and the number of return air inlets would not only increase the area of unidirectional flow region in main flow region, but also avoid an indoor vortex and turbulivity of the operating area. Based on the summary of heat and humidity management methods, the system operation mode and relevant parameter technologies as well as the characteristics of the thermal-humidity load of the operating room were analyzed and compiled. According to the load value and parameters of indoor design obtained after our calculations, the airflow distribution of purifying the air-conditioning system in a clean operating room was designed and checked. The research results suggested that the application of a secondary return air system in the summer could reduce energy consumption and be consistent with the concept of primaiy humidity control. This study analyzed the feasibility and energy conservation properties of cleaning air-conditioning technology in operating rooms, proposed some solutions to the problem, and performed a feasible simulation, which provides a reference for practical engineering.
C. Hu, X. G. Xia, X. M. Han, Y. F. Chen, Y. Qiao, D. H. Liu and S. L. Li
To study the effect of fertilization on soil nematode communities in a paddy-upland rotation system, an ongoing thirty-three years long-term fertilizer experiment is conducted which includes seven treatments; an unfertilized treatment (control), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K) fertilizer treatments (N, NP, NPK) and organic manure (M) combined with chemical fertilizer treatments (MN, MNP, and MNPK). The soil nematode community structure and crop yields were determined in 2012 and 2013. Overall total nematode abundance was increased by an incremental nutrient input both in the rice and wheat fields. Total number of nematode was 1.25 - 2.37 times greater in the rice field and was 1.08 - 2.97 times greater in wheat field in the fertilization treatments than in the unfertilized treatment. Soil free-living nematode abundances was significantly (P < 0.001) increased in organic manure combined with chemical fertilizer treatments in rice field. Fungi-feeders and plant-feeding nematodes abundances were not significantly different among treatments in rice and wheat fields. Omnivorous and predatory nematodes were the most dominant groups in the present study. Omnivores, predators and Prodorylaimus abundances were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in organic manure combined with NPK fertilizer treatments than in chemical fertilizer alone and unfertilized treatments both in rice and wheat fields. Stepwise regressions revealed that soil free-living nematodes were significant predictors of rice grain yields (R2 = 0.56, P < 0.001) and omnivorous and predatory nematodes were significant predictors of the wheat grain yield (R2 = 0.89, P < 0.001). Therefore, long-term application of organic manure combined with chemical fertilizer could increase nematode abundances and crop yields. Organic manure combined with chemical fertilizer application was recommended in agricultural ecosystem.