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Open access

Q.Y. Yang, T. Chen, Y.B. Chen and D.L. Lan

Abstract

The NOD-like receptor (NLR) family caspase recruitment domain-containing 5 (NLRC5) is one of the newly discovered and largest NLR family members. The NLRC5 has recently received extensive attention because of its important role in regulating innate and adaptive immune responses. The NLRC5 in many vertebrates, such as humans, mice, cattle, and horses, has already been proven and studied. However, the NLRC5 gene characteristics of pigs remain unclear. Thus, we completely cloned the NLRC5 cDNA sequence of the pig using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends(RACE) technology. A characteristic and tissue expression analysis was also conducted on the pig sequence. The sequence analysis showed that the complete cDNA sequence of the NLRC5 of the pig is 6638 bp, and the open reading frame is 5538 bp which encoded 1846 amino acids. The protein prediction analysis indicates that the overall performance of the NLRC5 protein of the pig is hydrophilic and possesses a typical nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain(NBD) and 20 leucine-rich repeats(LRRs). The homology analysis result indicates that the NLRC5 transcript in pigs is highly homologous to cattle, sheep, macaques, and humans, and accounts for around 80%. The genetic evolutionary tree analysis shows that the NLRC5 transcript in pigs has the closest evolutionary relationship with cattle and sheep. Further tissue expression analysis shows that immune organ systems (e.g., lymph node and spleen) and mucosa organs (e.g., intestinal lymph node, stomach, and lungs) possess high expressions with NLRC5 mRNA. The result of this study indicates that the NLRC5 transcript in pigs is relatively conservative among mammals and may play a vital role in immune reaction, which provides a basis for further studies on the NLRC5 function in the pig immune system and the role in comparative immunity.

Open access

M.L. Lei, L. Chen and X.M. Xiong

A new multifunctional mechanical spectrometer is developed based on an inverted torsion pendulum showing high precision in a wide frequency range to study soft matter. Apart from measuring the internal friction of solids it can also be used to study viscoelasticity. In this report we describe basic principles of the novel instrument.

Open access

Y. Han, M. Khan, L. Xu, G. Yao, L. Zhou and C. Chen

A new scheme for power factor correction and active filtering for six-pulse converters loads

This paper presents a novel harmonic-free power factor correction (PFC) topology based on T-type active power filter (APF), which is dedicated for power factor improvement and harmonic filtering for six-pulse converter loads. The cascaded controller structure is adopted for the proposed system, namely, the inner current loop and outer voltage loop. The current-loop control scheme is based on a decoupled state-space equations of the T-type APF using separate proportional-integral (PI) controllers in d-axis and q-axis of the synchronous rotating reference frame (SRRF) synchronized with grid voltages, respectively. The fundamental components of load-side currents are feed forwarded in the current-loop using two groups of synchronous frame adaptive linear neural networks (ADALINEs) to ensure estimation accuracy and a fast dynamic response. A separate proportional-integral (PI) controller is adopted in the outer voltage loop for balancing the active power flow of the voltage source inverter (VSI) dc-side capacitor. The experimental results confirm well with the theoretical analysis.

Open access

S. Zhang, L. Qi, C. Chen, X. Li, W. Song, R. Chen and S. Han

Abstract

This screening study analyzed ploidy levels by counting the chromosome number of 61 Aigeiros cultivars grown in China. Triploid Aigeiros has been found in four of these cultivars: Populus x euramericana (Dode) Guiner cv. Wuhei-1, P. × Liaohenica, P. Langfangensis-3 Wang (P. deltodide Barry cv. “Shanhaiguan” × P. simonii × P. pyramidalis-12 +Ulmus pumila Linn.), and P. × euramericana (Dode) Guinier. cv. “Zhonglin-46”. The karyotype analysis indicates that triploid Aigeiros might be derived from original allotriploid. Because growth of the triploid trees was faster than their respective diploid hybrids or clones in the plantations where we collected the materials, we expect that they will play a significant role in breeding, reforestation and fiber production in China.

Open access

Y. Zhang, C. L. Zhong, Y. Chen, Q. B. Jiang, Z. Chen, S. Nie and K. Pinyopusarerk

Abstract

Casuarina equisetifolia is an important tree species in the tropical and subtropical zones of Asia, Africa and the Pacific. There is an increasing interest in producing intra- and inter-specific hybrids of casuarina species. Conventional bagging controlled pollination method yielded very low fruit set and poor seed germination. High temperature and humidity in the pollination bags appeared to have instigated unfavorable conditions for pollination and fertilization mechanism. In this study, a novel approach was developed by conducting pollination in closed chambers which functioned like pollination bags. Fruit set and seed germination rate increased from 7.0% to 89.9%, and 8.1% to 51.8% respectively compared with the conventional bagging controlled pollination method. Based on the results, a controlled pollination glasshouse with 10 separated chambers has been designed to produce multiple hybrid combinations in a single pollination procedure.

Open access

U. Kaka, Y.M. Goh, L.W. Chean and H.C. Chen

Abstract

Electroencephalography (EEG) has been reported as an objective, non-invasive and stress free technique for nociceptive studies. Electrical stimuli can be used to evaluate the efficacy of centrally acting agents. Peripheral nerve stimulator can be a good and cheap source of electric stimulus for studies of nociception, and studies evaluating analgesic effect of drugs under EEG. In this study suitability of peripheral nerve stimulator, and milliamperage for nociceptive studies under electroencephalography were evaluated. Six dogs were subjected to electric stimulus of 20, 40, 60 and 80 milliamperes (mAs) before and after tramadol administration at 4 mg/kg IV. Electroencephalograph was recorded during electric stimulus prior tramadol (pre-tramadol) and during electric stimulus after tramadol (post-tramadol) under minimal anaesthesia. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with halothane at a stable concentration between 0.85 and 0.95%. Pre-tramadol median frequency (MF) increased significantly (p<0.05) at 40, 60 and 80 mAs post-electric stimulus compared to baseline MF. No difference in pre-tramadol MF was observed between 60 and 80 mAs. Tramadol produced significant effect by depression of MF at all intensities. The effect was less evident at 80 mAs. The results revealed that tramadol produced evident effect between 20 and 60 mAs. Thus, it is concluded that nerve stimulator can be used with the current between 20 and 60 mAs for nociceptive studies.

Open access

X. Sun, B. Su, L. Chen, Z. Yang and K. Li

Abstract

In this paper, a new type of interior composite-rotor bearingless permanent magnet synchronous motors (BPMSMs) with two layer permanent magnets (PMs) is proposed. In order to reduce the torque ripple of this kind of motors, the sizes of PMs are optimized. Moreover, the magnetic field analysis of the interior composite-rotor BPMSM with two layer PMs is carried out by the finite element method (FEM). The corresponding static electronic magnetic characteristics at no load, including magnetic field, PM flux linkage and inductance, are studied in detail. In addition, electromagnetic torque characteristics and suspension force characteristics are also investigated thoroughly. The results of the analysis and simulation lay a significant foundation for further research on the interior composite-rotor BPMSMs with two layer PMs.

Open access

X. Sun, Z. Xue, S. Han, L. Chen, X. Xu and Z. Yang

Abstract

Due to the separation of magnetic field, electrical isolation and thermal isolation, motor drives possess a high fault-tolerance characteristic. In this paper, comparative study of mutual inductance between the proposed segmented rotor switched reluctance motor (SSRM) and the conventional switched reluctance motor (SRM) is carried out first, illustrating that the proposed SSRM has less mutual inductance between phases than the conventional SRM. In addition, if winding faults or power converter faults lead to phase failure, a comparative analysis on fault-tolerant performance under phase failure condition between the proposed SSRM and the conventional SRM is simulated in detail using the finite element method (FEM). Simulation results reveal that dynamic performance of the proposed SSRM, including output torque and phase current, is better than that of the conventional SRM. That is, the capacity of operating with the fault under phase failure condition in the proposed SSRM is superior to that in the conventional SRM.

Open access

Steven L. Alderman, Chen Song, Serban C. Moldoveanu and Stephen K. Cole

Abstract

The relatively volatile nature of the particulate matter fraction of e-cigarette aerosols presents an experimental challenge with regard to particle size distribution measure-ments. This is particularly true for instruments requiring a high degree of aerosol dilution. This was illustrated in a previous study, where average particle diameters in the 10-50 nm range were determined by a high-dilution, electrical mobility method. Total particulate matter (TPM) masses calculated based on those diameters were orders of magnitude smaller than gravimetrically determined TPM. This discrepancy was believed to result from almost complete particle evaporation at the dilution levels of the electrical mobility analysis. The same study described a spectral transmission measurement of e-cigarette particle size in an undiluted state, and reported particles from 210-380 nm count median diameter. Observed particle number concentrations were in the 109 particles/cm3 range. Additional particle size measurements described here also found e-cigarette particle size to be in the 260-320 nm count median diameter range. Cambridge filter pads have been used for decades to determine TPM yields of tobacco burning cigarettes, and collection of e-cigarette TPM by fibrous filters is predicted to be a highly efficient process over a wide range of filtration flow rates. The results presented in this work provide support for this hypothesis.

Described here is a study in which e-cigarette aerosols were collected on Cambridge filters with adsorbent traps placed downstream in an effort to capture any material passing through the filter. Amounts of glycerin, propylene glycol, nicotine, and water were quantified on the filter and downstream trap. Glycerin, propylene glycol, and nicotine were effciently captured (> 98%) by the upstream Cambridge filter, and a correlation was observed between filtration efficiency and the partial vapor pressure of each component. The present analysis was largely inconclusive with regard to filter efficiency and particle-vapor partitioning of water. [Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 26 (2014) 183-190]