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K. Bohács, J. Faitli, L. Bokányi and G. Mucsi

Abstract

Due to the special characteristics of zeolites, they can be applied in a very wide range of industries, i.e. agricultural, environmental or water treatment purposes. Generally, high added value zeolite products are manufactured by micro- or nanogrinding. However, these processes require high energy input and cause significant wearing of the mill parts. Therefore, the optimization of zeolite grinding, as well as the control of its properties are of a great importance. In the present paper a Hungarian natural zeolite was mechanically activated in stirred media mill for various residence times in distilled water, meanwhile the particle size distribution and the grinding energy were measured. Additionally, on-line tube rheometer was used to study the rheology of the suspension during the grinding process. The particle interaction and the suspension aggregation stability were detected by zeta-potential measurements. Structural changes due to the mechanical activation process were monitored by FTIR. It was found that the material structure of the zeolite, as well as the rheological behaviour of the zeolite suspension and its aggregation stability had been altered due to the mechanical activation in the stirred media mill. It can be concluded that the zeolite product properties can be modified by mechanical activation in order to produce a high added value tailored material.

Open access

S. Nagy, L. Bokányi, I. Gombkötő and T. Magyar

Abstract

Nowadays Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) are widely utilized. They are applied as backlighting in Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD) and TV sets or as lighting equipments in homes, cars, instruments and street-lightning. End of life equipments are containing more and more LEDs. The recovery of valuable materials – such as Ga, Au, Cu etc. – from the LEDs is essential for the creating the circular economy. First task is the development of a proper recycling technology. Most of the researchers propose fully chemical or thermal-chemical pathway for the recycling of LEDs.

In the meantime our approach based on the thorough investigation of the structure and composition of LEDs, and shown in this paper, is the combination of mechanical and chemical techniques in order to recover more valuable products, as well as to facilitate the mass transfer. Our laboratory scale experiments are introduced, the final aim of which is Ga recovery in accordance with our above approach. It was experimentally proved that the LED chips contain Ga and can be recovered by mechanical processes along with copper-product. Ga is presented on the surface of the chips in GaN form. Mechano-chemical activation in high energy density stirred medium mill and the following acidic leaching resulted in the enrichment of 99.52% of gallium in the pregnant solution.