A. Dudlová, P. Juriš, P. Jarčuška, L. Čisláková, I. Papajová and V. Krčméry
The occurrence of developmental stages of endoparasite germs (cysts, oocysts, protozoa, and helminth eggs) as an indirect detection factor of endoparasitoses circulation in the environment, was examined in raw municipal wastewater, sludge and biologically cleaned waste water. Examination of municipal wastewater and sludge from five monitored wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in east Slovakia, from various fractions of municipal wastewater, confirmed 35.87 % positivity of samples for the endoparasitic germs. Among of all analysed samples 11.09 % were protozoan oo(cysts) and 20.87 % were helminth eggs. 3.91 % of samples showed positivity to both the helminth eggs and protozoan oo(cysts). In the raw wastewater the protozoa comprised of Giardia spp. (1.08 %) and Entamoeba spp. (1.08 %). The helminth eggs primarily consisted of Ascaris spp. (4.35 %) and strongyle-type eggs (3.26 %). No germs of protozoa or helminths were found in the treated wastewater. However, the highest presence of the germs was found in drained stabilised sludge. The average number of oo(cysts)/kg was 2.86±0.24 and the average number of helminth eggs/kg was 5.77±0.09. In all kinds of sludge, obtained during the process of wastewater treatment, there were protozoan (Giardia spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Entamoeba spp.) and helminths eggs (Ascaris spp., Trichuris spp., Taenia spp., Hymenolepis spp., or strongyle-type eggs) presented. In drained (condensed) stabilised sludge the eggs of Capillaria spp. and Toxocara spp. were also detected. From the epidemiological aspect the sewage sludge, due to high concentration of protozoal oo(cysts) or helminth eggs, represents a significant epidemiological risk for the endoparasitoses dissemination.
P. Rudohradská, M. Halánová, P. Ravaszová, M. Goldová, A. Valenčáková, M. Halán, I. Papajová, A. Pohorencová, J. Valko, L. Čisláková and P. Juriš
The number of parasites followed the rapid growing of human population worldwide, not only in developing but also in developed countries. Many of them are diagnosed in children and adolescents. The occurrence of selected intestinal endoparasites in children coming from areas with low hygienic and socioeconomic status was studied. Out of 81 faecal samples examined, 46 (56.8 %) were positive for presence of intestinal parasites. From helminths, Ascaris lumbricoides was found to be the leading parasite (24.7 %), followed by Trichuris trichiura (17.3 %). Tapeworm Taenia spp. eggs were detected in 4.9 % of examined children. From protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium spp. was observed in 36 children (44.4 %) and Giardia intestinalis in 20 children (24.7 %). The occurrence of these epidemiologically low risky parasites in Roma children population suggests low hygienic standard in the Roma settlements.
P. Juriš, A. Dudlová, J. Fábry, J. Melter, M. Miškovská, E. Mindžáková, P. Jarčuška, V. Krčméry, L. Čisláková, I. Papajová and D. Sysel
Faeces examination of hospitalised paediatric patients with respiratory diseases (recurrent and chronic bronchitis, bronchial asthma, contact with TBC, active TBC, rhinopharyngitis, bronchitis, pneumonia, cystic fibrosis, fluidothorax, pleuropneumonia) revealed the total prevalence of endoparasites of 19.85 %, out of which the prevalence of helminth was 7.35 %. Following genera, or species were represented Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichuria, Hymenolepis spp., Enterobius vermicularis. The total prevalence of protozoa was 12.50 % in the following representation: Cryptosporidium spp., Entamoeba spp., Isospora spp., Giardia spp. Out of helminthoses the greatest representation was in Ascaris lumbricoides 4.41 %, and out of protozoa Cryptosporidium spp. 6.62 %. In paediatric patients the increased levels of IgE antibodies were found for individual age groups as well as higher values of eosinophiles (Eo > 5 %), lymphocytes (Lym > 56 %), and Creactive protein (CRP > 8 mg.l−1). Statistically significantly (P < 0.05) higher level (above the reference values) of IgE, Eo, Lym were found in the patients with helminthoses.