Effect of the Volume of Magneto-rheological Fluid on Shear Performance
As a kind of smart material, MR (magneto-rheological) fluid is dramatically influenced by the external magnetic field and can change from the liquid state to semi-solid state in several milliseconds. In this paper, the effect of different volume of MRF on its shear performance is proposed. A set of testing systems, including the plate-on-plate MRF shearing test rig, is built up to measure the relationship between the produced shear torque and the added volume of MRF in different current. The variation of magnetic flux density in the shear gap is measured by teslameter and simulated before and after MRF is added. The results validate the effect of volume on the shear torque experimentally.
Yiming Zhao, Baitong Chen, Jin Zhang, Ying Ding, Jin Mao and Lihong Zhou
This study investigates the evolution of diabetics’ concerns based on the analysis of terms in the Diabetes category logs on the Yahoo! Answers website. Two sets of question-and-answer (Q&A) log data were collected: one from December 2, 2005 to December 1, 2006; the other from April 1, 2013 to March 31, 2014. Network analysis and a t-test were performed to analyze the differences in diabetics’ concerns between these two data sets. Community detection and topic evolution were used to reveal detailed changes in diabetics’ concerns in the examined period. Increases in average node degree and graph density imply that the vocabulary size that diabetics use to post questions decreases while the scope of questions has become more focused. The networks of key terms in the Q&A log data of 2005–2006 and 2013–2014 are significantly different according to the t-test analysis of the degree centrality and betweenness centrality. Specifically, there is a shift in diabetics’ focus in that they have become more concerned about daily life and other nonmedical issues, including diet, food, and nutrients. The recent changes and the evolution paths of diabetics’ concerns were visualized using an alluvial diagram. The food- and diet-related terms have become prominent, as deduced from the visualization results.
Li-jun Peng, Jin-sheng Guo, Zhe Zhang, Li-li Liu, Yi-rong Cao, Hong Shi, Jian Wang, Scott L. Friedman, John J. Sninsky and Ji-yao Wang
Objective Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have linked many single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to the outcomes of a variety of liver diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of several candidate SNPs with the risk and severity of cirrhosis due to chronic hepatitis B in a Chinese population.
Methods A total of 714 Chinese participants with persistent HBV infection were studied. Patients were divided into cirrhotic (n = 429) and non-cirrhotic (n = 285) groups based on clinical and pathological evidence. The progression rate and severity of liver cirrhosis were evaluated with an arbitrary t-score system. Genotypes of six SNPs in five candidate genes were detected with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The genotypic distributions of the SNPs were compared between the age-matched cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic subjects. The association between the risk of SNPs and the severity and progression rate of cirrhosis was further analyzed.
Results Rs2679757 polymorphism of the antizyme inhibitor 1 (AZIN1) gene and Rs886277 in the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M, member 5 gene (TRPM5) were found to be associated with cirrhosis risk in CHB. They were also correlated with the overall severity and progression rate of cirrhosis. Genotype frequencies of other SNPs were not different between the cirrhosis and non-cirrhosis groups.
Conclusions AZIN1 rs2679757 and TRPM5 rs886277 are associated with the risk and the progression rate of HBV-related liver fibrosis in Chinese patients. The emerging SNPs associated with cirrhosis prognosis warrant further clinical validation in other CHB cohorts or ethnic groups, and merit mechanistic studies to reveal their roles in fibrosis progression.
Vishal V. Burungale, Rupesh S. Devan, Sachin A. Pawar, Namdev S. Harale, Vithoba L. Patil, V. K. Rao, Yuan-Ron Ma, Jo Eun Ae, Jin H. Kim and Pramod S. Patil
Rapid NO2 gas sensor has been developed based on PbS nanoparticulate thin films synthesized by Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) method at different precursor concentrations. The structural and morphological properties were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscope. NO2 gas sensing properties of PbS thin films deposited at different concentrations were tested. PbS film with 0.25 M precursor concentration showed the highest sensitivity. In order to optimize the operating temperature, the sensitivity of the sensor to 50 ppm NO2 gas was measured at different operating temperatures, from 50 to 200 °C. The gas sensitivity increased with an increase in operating temperature and achieved the maximum value at 150 °C, followed by a decrease in sensitivity with further increase of the operating temperature. The sensitivity was about 35 % for 50 ppm NO2 at 150 °C with rapid response time of 6 s. T90 and T10 recovery time was 97 s at this gas concentration.