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László Z. Varga

Abstract

The online routing game model can be used to measure and prove the benefits of online real time data in road traffic navigation systems. A few properties of the routing strategies are already proved. In this paper we point out that there are some paradoxes like phenomena behind these proofs, similarly as in the Braess network.

Open access

László Tolvaj and Dénes Varga

Abstract

- In this study, resistance of black locust, beech and poplar wood to photodegradation was tested, applying sunlight, a xenon lamp and a mercury vapour lamp. The irradiation time was 200 hours for sunlight and the xenon light and 20 hours for the mercury light. The changes were monitored by colour measurements and infrared spectroscopy. The colour change of black locust was more intensive at the beginning of the irradiation than that of the beech and poplar. The degradation of aromatic structure of lignin (absorbing at 1510 and 1596 cm-1) in black locust was minor compared to the same changes of beech and poplar during the first 10 hours. The mercury lamp induced more intensive changes both in colour and in infrared spectrum than the other two light sources. The results show that the high extractive content of black locust absorbs a considerable amount of light radiation protecting the main chemical components of wood.

Open access

Imola Cseh Papp, Erika Varga, Zoltán Szira and László Hajós

Abstract

According to the OECD, active employment policies include all social expenditure that are directed at improving the chances of finding a job and income generation (except education). Active labour market policies are around to assist in enhancing labour market flexibility at the times of economic changes. Their key components are the so-called activation strategies that act as typical prerequisites of benefitting from unemployment security/support systems in every EU country. The workfare concept lies behind the public work programmes. There are serious professional debates whether public work can primarily be seen as a ’compulsion and work test’ or, rather, as an opportunity of entering the primary labour market. The available efficiency analyses unanimously state that public work forms have the biggest role in testing willingness to work and the obligatory nature is the strongest of all active labour market policies. Research also indicates that public work reintegrates only few people back to the primary labour market and the majority are restrained from seeking a job and other income generating activities. There are several reasons for and against public work and opinions differ. The paper summarises the benefits and drawbacks on the basis of international and Hungarian analyses.

Open access

Erika Varga, Zoltán Szira, Kinga Ilona Bárdos and László Hajós

Abstract

Our paper is aimed at examining what principal business competencies (can) enhance the success and competitiveness of employees according to the employers and we also wish to explore what personality traits have a decisive effect on the decision-making mechanism in taking on new staff. At present employers can make selection from a lot of fresh graduates in economics so for them it is essential to know the competencies by which they are classified and ranked by the employers. However, it is also important to bear in mind from which aspects their opinion meet the employers′ expectations. Based on surveying the employers′ expectations, the required competencies play a vital role in the hiring process and they are mainly acquired in practical trainings. An answer is also sought to the question of how the rank order of competencies have been changed, how their role was appreciated and reevaluated and what skills and abilities are no longer or only to a slight extent necessary for success in the labour market vs. the ones that were not required previously but have become indispensable these days. One of our further objectives was to create and test a competency structure tailored to the current Hungarian labour market situation and specialities on the basis of the professional literature.

Open access

József Gyurácz, Péter Bánhidi, József Góczán, Péter Illés, Sándor Kalmár, Péter Koszorús, Zoltán Lukács, Csaba Németh and László Varga

Abstract

The fieldwork, i.e. catching and ringing birds using mist-nets, was conducted at Tömörd Bird Ringing Station in western Hungary during the post-breeding migration seasons in 1998-2016. Altogether, 106,480 individuals of 133 species were ringed at the station. The aim of this paper was to publish basic information on passerine migration at this site. Migration phenology was described through annual and daily capture frequencies. Furthermore, we provide the median date of the passage, the date of the earliest or latest capture, the peak migration season within the study period, and the countries where the birds monitored at the site were ringed or recovered abroad. To compare the catching dynamics for the fifty species with total captures greater than 200, a reference period was defined: from 5 Aug. to 5 Nov. 2001-2016. Some non-passerines that are more easily caught with mist-nets or that are caught occasionally were listed as well. The two superdominant species, the European Robin and the Eurasian Blackcap, with 14,377 and 13,926 total captures, made up 27% of all ringed individuals. Among the fifty species analysed, there were ten species with a decreasing trend, five species with an increasing trend and thirty-five species with a stable (or uncertain) trend in their numbers from 2001 to 2016. The temporal pattern of migration of long-distance migrants was different from that of the medium- and short-distance migratory species.