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Ildikó Szedljak, Viktória Tóth, Judit Tormási, Anikó Kovács, László Somogyi, László Sipos and Gabriella Kiskó

Abstract

In Hungary, dried pasta products are very popular amongst all groups of society. In recent years the demand for not only dried pasta made from hen eggs (Gallus gallus domesticus) but from alternative types of ingredients has increased. However, according to the literature the chemical and microbiological characteristics of this type of pasta have yet to be studied in depth. The effects of the use of quail eggs and heat treatments at different temperatures were studied by chemical and microbiological measurements. The activity of oxidative enzymes and nutritional characteristics (water-soluble total polyphenol content, water-soluble antioxidant capacity, peroxidase enzymatic activity, water-soluble protein content and yellow pigment content) was tested during our experiments. The data were evaluated by relevant statistical methods. Significant differences were found both between heat treatments and between the egg content of the dried pasta samples. The peroxidase enzymatic activity and yellow pigment content increased with temperature. However, the usage of quail eggs provides a higher water-soluble protein content and water-soluble antioxidant capacity. The presence of microorganisms is decreased by increasing the drying temperature. The number of all the examined microorganisms was within limits.

Open access

Erzsébet Bognár, Gabriella Hellner, Andrea Radnóti, László Somogyi and Zsolt Kemény

Abstract

Glycidyl esters are foodborne contaminants formed during the production of fats and oils, especially during the deodorization of palm oil. The hydrolyzed free form of glycidol has been categorized as probably carcinogenic to humans by the World Health Organization’s International Agency for Research on Cancer. The aim of this research was to study the formation of glycidyl esters during the lab-scale deodorization of the three most widely produced seed oils in the world (sunflower, rapeseed and soybean). The effects of two independent factors – temperature and residence time – were analyzed by a 32 full factorial experimental design and evaluated by response surface methodology. In accordance with findings in the literature, the greatest amount of glycidyl esters was formed in the soybean oil matrix. For all three oils, the effects of both residence time and temperature were significant, while the latter was more so. To reduce the formation of glycidyl esters, milder deodorization is required, which is limited because of the purposes sought by the thermal operation and removal of volatile minor components and contaminants.

Open access

Vinod Dhaygude, Anita Soós, Ildikó Zeke and László Somogyi

Abstract

The objective of this work was to compare the physical and thermal characteristics of two coconut oils and their blends which were observed by the results of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (pNMR). Fat blends composed of different ratios (fully hydrogenated coconut oil / non-hydrogenated coconut oil: 25/75, 50/50 and 75/25) were prepared and examined for solid fat content. The solid fat content of samples was determined as a function of temperature by pNMR. The DSC technique determines the solid fat index by measuring the heat of fusion successively at different temperatures. DSC calculates the actual content of solids in fat samples and how it changes throughout the duration of heating or cooling. A characteristic curve is constructed by the correlation of enthalpies. Based on our results, it is clear that both DSC and pNMR techniques provide very practical and useful information on the solid fat content of fats. DSC is dynamic and pNMR is static. A difference in the values of the solid fat indexes of samples was observed which may be due to a fundamental difference between the two techniques. These data can be used by food manufacturers to optimize processing conditions for modified coconut oil and food products fortified with coconut oil.