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  • Author: László Nagy x
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Open access

Adrienn Nagy, Kitti Kollár and László Péli

Abstract

The everyday use of renewable energy sources is necessary and indispensable in today’s modern world, partly because of the difficult handling of environmental problems caused by the increasing use of fossil energy sources, and partly because of the still increasing energy demand. Concerning alternative energy sources, Hungary has great potential in geothermal energy, which can mean a breakout especially for the peripheral, disadvantaged micro-regions while developing their future strategies. This was the motivation of our research. In our study, we intended to highlight the economic development perspectives of the Hungarian micro-regions lagging behind regarding the renewable energy potential.

Open access

Judit Sárándi-Kovács, László Nagy, Ferenc Lakatos and György Sipos

Abstract

During a regular survey of declining forests in 2011, sudden dieback symptoms were observed on scattered wild cherry trees (Prunus avium) in a mixed deciduous forest stand, located in the flood plain area of the Rába River, in northwest Hungary. In this study, we correlated both soil conditions and presence of Phytophthora spp. to dieback of cherry trees. Two Phytophthora species, P. polonica and P. plurivora, were isolated from the rhizosphere soil of the dying trees. By contrast, only P. polonica was recovered from the necrotic tissues of symptomatic roots. Stem and root inoculation tests on cherry seedlings showed pathogenicity of both species, although P. polonica proved to be more virulent. This is the first report of natural infections of P. polonica.

Open access

Gábor Markó, Manuel Azcárate, Gergely Hegyi, Gábor Herceg, Miklós Laczi, Gergely Nagy, Juan Carlos Señar, János Török and László Zsolt Garamszegi

Abstract

In birds, individuals may show different behavioural and physiological responses when handling, and such variation may be related to individual differences in antipredator strategies. We performed a pilot study in both breeding and wintering populations of the Great Tit (Parus major), and we characterised three typical behavioural traits during a standard ringing procedure in captured birds. We assessed between- individual variations in breath rate, pecking rate and the number of distress calls displayed in response to handling, and also calculated the within-individual variation of these traits by repeated behavioural measurements. We found that these behaviours were consistently displayed within individuals (with repeatability varying between 0.44 and 0.82), and there was also some modest correlation between them (e.g. breath rate covaried with the number of distress calls). Furthermore, using multivariate linear models assessing a role of some potential predictors we found that a considerable amount of between-individual variation can be explained by sex and age differences and also by variation in body condition. However, the magnitude and direction of these relationships was inconsistent across seasons. Our results are in line with previous findings that several consistent behavioural traits measured during human handling could reflect individual specific antipredator strategy, but some confounding effects cannot be ruled out. Hence, our preliminary results require careful interpretation, and further studies are needed to assess the exact magnitude by which different behavioural traits are inter-related

Open access

József Fidlóczky, János Bagyura, Károly Nagy, Tamás Szitta, László Haraszthy and Péter Tóth

Abstract

Bird conservation on electricity transmission lines has a 40-year history in Hungary. It started with the saker conservation program. The initial small-scale activities were considerably enlarged through the LIFE projects. In the first project, 301 nest boxes for sakers of a new type made of aluminium were installed on pylons of high-voltage transmission lines. In 201 3 nearly 70% of saker pairs nested in these new boxes. An estimated 1 00 000 different birds used to be killed annually on the transmission line pylons in Hungary. During the two LIFE projects about 1 4 300 pylons were made bird-safe using improved technology and materials. Nearly 800 new bird-safe crossarms of pylons are being installed in the second project, which is expected to completely eradicate the danger

Open access

Nóra Boross, Gábor Markó, Miklós Laczi, László Zsolt Garamszegi, Gergely Hegyi, Márton Herényi, Dorottya Kiss, Gergely Nagy, Balázs Rosivall, Eszter Szöllősi and János Török

Abstract

The haematocrit rate of the blood shows the individual physiological state. As the haematocrit grows, the higher erythrocyte number results in more efficient oxygen uptake capacity which can lead to better performance and probably a better survival rate of an individual. Hence we assume that the high value of haematocrit reflects good health state. Altogether 308 blood samples were collected from a wild population of Collared Flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis) in two breeding stages during a period of 2008-2010. We tried to elucidate the relationship between condition and haematocrit level of an individual and studied the haematocrit changes of an individual between years. The haematocrit values differed between years. Females had higher haematocrit values than males in 2010 but not in 2009. At courtship the haematocrit level of males was higher, than during nestling care. The different environmental effects and energy demands of the individuals may be the driving force behind the observed changes in haematocrit level. Analysing the changes between two years, there was a positive correlation between changes in condition index and haematocrit of individuals. The haematocrit values of an individual were repeatable between years. This finding suggests that haematocrit can be informative about the individual’s general health state.

Open access

Peter Balogh, Wojciech Kapelański, Hanna Jankowiak, Lajos Nagy, Sandor Kovacs, Laszlo Huzsvai, Jozsef Popp, Janos Posta and Angela Soltesz

Abstract

The aim of this study was to compare the characteristics of the productive lifetime (PLT) of sows kept on two farms, from the aspect of reasons for culling. The study was based on data from animals from two breeding farms in Hungary, using the data of 3493 crossbred Dutch Large White and Dutch Landrace sows (DLW × DL) between their first farrowing until the time of culling (2006 and 2012). For six years, the annual culling rate for both farms averaged 45%. The most frequent reasons for removal on both farms were reproductive problems (40%, 51%), leg problems (29%, 23%) and mortality (19%, 15%). There was a significant difference between the distributions of reasons for culling on the two farms (χ2=41.7, P≤0.001). The distributions of reasons for culling differed in three periods of sow breeding (Farm A: χ2=264.7, P≤0.001; Farm B: χ2=511.1, P≤0.001). The percentage of main removal reasons decreased, whereas the frequency of culling due to age increased. Using survival analysis (Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard model), significant differences were identified between the PLT of sows culled due to reproductive problems (P≤0.001), leg problems (P≤0.001) and old age (P≤0.001). Reproductive problems (HR: 1.34, P≤0.001) and leg problems (HR: 1.39, P≤0.001) were higher and culling due to old age (HR: 0.44, P≤0.001) was lower on Farm A compared to Farm B. There were no significant differences between the two farms in terms of mortality (HR: 0.99, P=0.923). Overall, the results can be useful for breeders of crossbred (DLW × DL) sow populations in more accurately defining their culling systems.

Open access

Viliam Nagy, Gábor Milics, Norbert Smuk, Attila József Kovács, István Balla, Márton Jolánkai, József Deákvári, Kornél D. Szalay, László Fenyvesi, Vlasta Štekauerová, Zoltán Wilhelm, Kálmán Rajkai, Tamás Németh and Miklós Neményi

Abstract

A soil moisture content map is important for providing information about the distribution of moisture in a given area. Moisture content directly influences agricultural yield thus it is crucial to have accurate and reliable information about moisture distribution and content in the field. Since soil is a porous medium modified generalized Archie’s equation provides the basic formula to calculate moisture content data based on measured ECa. In this study we aimed to find a more accurate and cost effective method for measuring moisture content than manual field sampling. Locations of 25 sampling points were chosen from our research field as a reference. We assumed that soil moisture content could be calculated by measuring apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) using the Veris-3100 on-the-go soil mapping tool. Statistical analysis was carried out on the 10.791 ECa raw data in order to filter the outliers. The applied statistical method was ±1.5 interquartile (IRQ) distance approach. The visualization of soil moisture distribution within the experimental field was carried out by means of ArcGIS/ArcMAP using the inverse distance weighting interpolation method. In the investigated 25 sampling points, coefficient of determination between calculated volumetric moisture content data and measured ECa was R2 = 0.87. According to our results, volumetric moisture content can be mapped by applying ECa measurements in these particular soil types.

Open access

Mihály Bárász, Péter Ligeti, Krisztina Lója, László Mérai and Dániel A. Nagy

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we explore the Dining Cryptographers’ protocol over a cyclic group with a one-way homomorphic image, using a boardroom voting protocol as an illustration of its desirable security properties. In particular, we address the problem of anonymous disruption, which is one of the main disadvantages of DC over more usual groups like binary vectors.