Csaba Lentner, László Nagy, László Vasa and Szilárd Hegedűs
The aim of this paper is to analyse legal and financial dynamics of the self-governance in three countries of the Visegrad Group: the Czech Republic, Hungary and Slovakia. The paper explores compliance with the European Charter of Local Self-Government, financial independence and operational features of self-governance. The paper provides an overview of the regulatory environment that was set up for the local government in the Visegrad countries, examines the powers by local government, and the degree of its financial independence. The financial aspects of self-government are compared, and compliance with major fiscal rules is examined.
The everyday use of renewable energy sources is necessary and indispensable in today’s modern world, partly because of the difficult handling of environmental problems caused by the increasing use of fossil energy sources, and partly because of the still increasing energy demand. Concerning alternative energy sources, Hungary has great potential in geothermal energy, which can mean a breakout especially for the peripheral, disadvantaged micro-regions while developing their future strategies. This was the motivation of our research. In our study, we intended to highlight the economic development perspectives of the Hungarian micro-regions lagging behind regarding the renewable energy potential.
There are several technical inventors in Hungary who unfortunately have been forgotten or are not commemorated sufficiently. One of such Hungarian is Manfréd Weiss. In our research we examine his life and work, a life devoted to our technological development. Moreover, beyond his life, we also explore the famous inventor-engineer’s technical achievements and their impacts today. We also study the characteristics of the era in which he lived, in order to better understand the work and context of the inventor better.
I would like to emphasise that during our exploration, we realised the importance of this choice of topic: It is the duty of the later generations to explore and learn the work of their predecessors, and to spread and publish the conclusions as widely as possible.
Judit Sárándi-Kovács, László Nagy, Ferenc Lakatos and György Sipos
During a regular survey of declining forests in 2011, sudden dieback symptoms were observed on scattered wild cherry trees (Prunus avium) in a mixed deciduous forest stand, located in the flood plain area of the Rába River, in northwest Hungary. In this study, we correlated both soil conditions and presence of Phytophthora spp. to dieback of cherry trees. Two Phytophthora species, P. polonica and P. plurivora, were isolated from the rhizosphere soil of the dying trees. By contrast, only P. polonica was recovered from the necrotic tissues of symptomatic roots. Stem and root inoculation tests on cherry seedlings showed pathogenicity of both species, although P. polonica proved to be more virulent. This is the first report of natural infections of P. polonica.
Hadarics et. al. gave a Mathematical Model for Distributed Vulnerability Assessment. In this model the extent of vulnerability of a specific company IT infrastructure is measured by the probability of at least one successful malware attack when the users behaviour is also incorporated into the model. The different attacks are taken as independent random experiments and the probability is calculated accordingly. The model uses some input probabilities related to the characteristics of the different threats, protections and user behaviours which are estimated by the corresponding relative frequencies. In this paper this model is further detailed, improved and a numerical example is also presented.
Bálint Borsos, László Nagy, David Iclănzan and László Szilágyi
According to WHO estimates, 400 million people suffer from diabetes, and this number is likely to double by year 2030. Unfortunately, diabetes can have severe complications like glaucoma or retinopathy, which both can cause blindness. The main goal of our research is to provide an automated procedure that can detect retinopathy-related lesions of the retina from fundus images. This paper focuses on the segmentation of so-called white lesions of the retina that include hard and soft exudates. The established procedure consists of three main phases. The preprocessing step compensates the various luminosity patterns found in retinal images, using background and foreground pixel extraction and a data normalization operator similar to Z-transform. This is followed by a modified SLIC algorithm that provides homogeneous superpixels in the image. The final step is an ANN-based classification of pixels using fifteen features extracted from the neighborhood of the pixels taken from the equalized images and from the properties of the superpixel where the pixel belongs. The proposed methodology was tested using high-resolution fundus images originating from the IDRiD database. Pixelwise accuracy is characterized by a 54% Dice score in average, but the presence of exudates is detected with 94% precision.
Gábor Markó, Manuel Azcárate, Gergely Hegyi, Gábor Herceg, Miklós Laczi, Gergely Nagy, Juan Carlos Señar, János Török and László Zsolt Garamszegi
In birds, individuals may show different behavioural and physiological responses when handling, and such variation may be related to individual differences in antipredator strategies. We performed a pilot study in both breeding and wintering populations of the Great Tit (Parus major), and we characterised three typical behavioural traits during a standard ringing procedure in captured birds. We assessed between- individual variations in breath rate, pecking rate and the number of distress calls displayed in response to handling, and also calculated the within-individual variation of these traits by repeated behavioural measurements. We found that these behaviours were consistently displayed within individuals (with repeatability varying between 0.44 and 0.82), and there was also some modest correlation between them (e.g. breath rate covaried with the number of distress calls). Furthermore, using multivariate linear models assessing a role of some potential predictors we found that a considerable amount of between-individual variation can be explained by sex and age differences and also by variation in body condition. However, the magnitude and direction of these relationships was inconsistent across seasons. Our results are in line with previous findings that several consistent behavioural traits measured during human handling could reflect individual specific antipredator strategy, but some confounding effects cannot be ruled out. Hence, our preliminary results require careful interpretation, and further studies are needed to assess the exact magnitude by which different behavioural traits are inter-related
László Péter Pusztai, Balázs Kocsi, István Budai and Lajos Nagy
It is essential for every company to know their business processes well, because these companies must allocate their resources in an efficient way in order to keep or strengthen their market position. During the research we aimed at optimizing the material flow at a wooden box producer company with the use of the generalized network flow model as this model is widely used for modelling production processes. In the first part of our work we calculated the optimal material flows focusing on two objectives, and in the second part we determined a compromise solution. Finally, we compared and evaluated the results of the three models.
József Fidlóczky, János Bagyura, Károly Nagy, Tamás Szitta, László Haraszthy and Péter Tóth
Bird conservation on electricity transmission lines has a 40-year history in Hungary. It started with the saker conservation program. The initial small-scale activities were considerably enlarged through the LIFE projects. In the first project, 301 nest boxes for sakers of a new type made of aluminium were installed on pylons of high-voltage transmission lines. In 201 3 nearly 70% of saker pairs nested in these new boxes. An estimated 1 00 000 different birds used to be killed annually on the transmission line pylons in Hungary. During the two LIFE projects about 1 4 300 pylons were made bird-safe using improved technology and materials. Nearly 800 new bird-safe crossarms of pylons are being installed in the second project, which is expected to completely eradicate the danger