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László Kovács

Abstract

Nowadays it is clear not only for professionals but also for outsiders that our advanced Western societies cannot operate without the infrastructure based on information technologies. The security of these infrastructures, which are present in public utilities, economic life, public administration, defence sector or even in the smallest detail of everyday life, have a vital importance. The reason for this is very simple: if these systems do not work, then society does not work either. The importance of cyberspace can no longer be questioned. Accordingly, the challenges and threats to cyberspace have to be addressed at strategic level. This paper presents the most important cyber security principles and strategies of the European Union and NATO.

Open access

László Kovács

Abstract

The more advanced digital economy and society a country has the more exposed it is to cyber threats. Consequently, countries with advanced digital economy and digital infrastructure naturally need to pay more attention to protecting cyber space. Today it is a national security issue and it can no longer be argued that cyber security is its indispensable part. Accordingly, a national cyber security strategy has to be built on national security strategy. That is the main reason for using the word “cornerstone” in the title of this study. The relation between national security and national cyber security means a specific context, which is one of the subjects of our examination in this study. Today, most countries have a cyber security strategy. However, these strategies are mostly static documents that do not or only partially can handle the dynamism that characterizes cyberspace. This paper focuses on the key issues that are needed for developing a usable cyber security strategy.

Open access

Zsolt Orlovits and László Kovács

Abstract

The aim of the present paper is to provide a comprehensive overview of the major regulations related to the acquisition and ownership of agricultural and forestry lands in Hungary and the effect of these regulations on the trends and changes in trade and ownership structure. The four pivotal points regarding policy–making have been the following: (1) maintaining national ownership of agricultural lands, (2) preventing the registration of ownership when the aim of the transaction is speculation, (3) maintaining the limitation and strict regulations on the possibilities for new acquisitions by corporately owned farms, (4) supporting the acquisition and usage of agricultural lands by privately and family owned farms. In order to achieve these aims, the government of Hungary decided upon a framework for agricultural land acquisition and ownership that integrates a number of rules and limitations already applied by land administration authorities in other EU member countries. However, their systematic and cumulative use raises major questions in the application of the relevant laws in real–life situations; in addition, there are serious concerns about their compatibility with EU principles on legislation and jurisdiction(1). This paper summarises typical situations to illustrate the controversies of the regulations related to agricultural land acquisition and use in Hungary.

Open access

Judit Sárándi-Kovács, László Nagy, Ferenc Lakatos and György Sipos

Abstract

During a regular survey of declining forests in 2011, sudden dieback symptoms were observed on scattered wild cherry trees (Prunus avium) in a mixed deciduous forest stand, located in the flood plain area of the Rába River, in northwest Hungary. In this study, we correlated both soil conditions and presence of Phytophthora spp. to dieback of cherry trees. Two Phytophthora species, P. polonica and P. plurivora, were isolated from the rhizosphere soil of the dying trees. By contrast, only P. polonica was recovered from the necrotic tissues of symptomatic roots. Stem and root inoculation tests on cherry seedlings showed pathogenicity of both species, although P. polonica proved to be more virulent. This is the first report of natural infections of P. polonica.

Open access

András Zsolt Kovács and László Németh

Abstract

The Mental Rotation Test (MRT) is one of the tests to survey the spatial ability. In this article we make an attempt to measure the spatial abilities of the students of wood industrial engineering and industrial design engineering of the Simonyi Károly Faculty of Engineering, Wood Sciences and Applied Arts (SKF for short) of the University of West Hungary and compare the results with the architects students of the Ybl Miklós Faculty of Architecture and Civil Engineering of the Szent István University. The paper aims to compare the results with respect to the scores and mainly the improvement based on new examination aspects. The article concludes that the small differences in the students’ developments of spatial ability in the two institutions can be caused by the difference in Descriptive Geometry courses

Open access

Ildikó Szedljak, Viktória Tóth, Judit Tormási, Anikó Kovács, László Somogyi, László Sipos and Gabriella Kiskó

Abstract

In Hungary, dried pasta products are very popular amongst all groups of society. In recent years the demand for not only dried pasta made from hen eggs (Gallus gallus domesticus) but from alternative types of ingredients has increased. However, according to the literature the chemical and microbiological characteristics of this type of pasta have yet to be studied in depth. The effects of the use of quail eggs and heat treatments at different temperatures were studied by chemical and microbiological measurements. The activity of oxidative enzymes and nutritional characteristics (water-soluble total polyphenol content, water-soluble antioxidant capacity, peroxidase enzymatic activity, water-soluble protein content and yellow pigment content) was tested during our experiments. The data were evaluated by relevant statistical methods. Significant differences were found both between heat treatments and between the egg content of the dried pasta samples. The peroxidase enzymatic activity and yellow pigment content increased with temperature. However, the usage of quail eggs provides a higher water-soluble protein content and water-soluble antioxidant capacity. The presence of microorganisms is decreased by increasing the drying temperature. The number of all the examined microorganisms was within limits.

Open access

Mihály Zakar, Ildikó Kovács, Péter Muhi, Erika Hanczné Lakatos, Gábor Keszthelyi-Szabó and Zsuzsanna László

Abstract

The dairy industry generates wastewater characterised by high levels of biological and chemical oxygen demands representative of their high degree of organic content; mainly carbohydrates, proteins and fats that originate from milk. Several investigations have been conducted into the reuse of dairy wastewater, e.g. membrane processes are a promising method to treat such wastewater. Earlier works have proven that with membrane filtration an appropriate degree of retention can be achieved and the permeate can be reused. However, membrane fouling is a limiting factor in these processes. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are widely used in the fields of water and wastewater treatments and are known for their capability to mineralise a wide range of organic compounds. AOPs also exhibit some other effects on the filtration process, e.g. the microflocculation effect of ozone may play a significant role in increasing the elimination efficiency and causing a decreased level of irreversible fouling. By comparing ozone and Fenton pre-treatment (FPT) processes it can be shown that the fouling propensity of pre-treated pollutants does not depend on the pre-treatment method, while FPT was proven to be more efficient in improving the level of flux.

Open access

Márton Horváth, Béla Solti, Imre Fatér, Tibor Juhász, László Haraszthy, Tamás Szitta, Zsuzsanna Ballók and Szilvia Pásztory-Kovács

Abstract

The diet composition of breeding Eastern Imperial Eagles (Aquila heliaca) was analysed in Hungary between 2005 and 2017, and compared with two previously published datasets from the periods of 1982–1991 and 1992–2004. Altogether the distribution of 8543 prey items of 126 different species and 29 other taxa were analysed within a 36-years period. We found that the previously abundant Common Hamster (Cricetus cricetus) became marginal (7.42%), while European Sousliks (Spermophilus citellus) practically disappeared (0.03%) from the diet of Imperial Eagles. Small game species, like the Common Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) and the Brown Hare (Lepus europaeus) composed a remarkable part of the diet (11.22% and 28.11% respectively), which raised some conflicts with hunters regionally and probably also contributed to the high prevalence of persecution incidents against the eagles. In parallel with the loss of traditional prey species, corvids (13.10%), pigeons (8.90%), waterbirds (6.83%), other rodents (6.71%), Roe Deers (Capreolus capreolus) (5.59%), raptors and owls (4.88%) became regularly detected prey species. The temporal changes of the main prey categories were analysed between 1998 and 2017, when the ratio of Hamster and Pheasant showed significant decrease (-27.29% and -6.38%, respectively). The ratio of Brown Hare also showed slight decrease (-3.98%), but the change was not significant. On the other hand, the ratio of corvids, waterbirds and Roe Deers within the diet showed significant increase (+18.20%, +6.25% and +5.39%, respectively). The observed flexibility in the foraging behaviour of Imperial Eagles greatly facilitate conservation efforts, as they seems to be able to utilize the most abundant prey sources, i.e. they were not depending solely from the status of any single specific prey source. However, eagles could only shift and survive in those regions, where their traditional preys decreased, if alternative species were available for them.

Open access

Krisztina Filepné Kovács, István Valánszki, Ágnes Sallay, Sándor Jombach, Zsuzsanna Mikházi and László Kollányi

Abstract

An essential condition for the success of rural areas is the harmonious enforcement of ecologic, economic, and other educational, cultural, aesthetic goods/services of landscape, diversity of landscape functions. Landscape function analysis is a useful tool for the complex evaluation of rural regions. Using statistic and spatial data, we explored the landscape resources, potentials, and limitations of two pilot regions. But what about the future? Based on the landscape function analysis, we have defined special types of regions/landscape visions according to the long-term ability to retain population by the comparison of economic, production, and habitat value of the landscape.

Open access

Peter Balogh, Wojciech Kapelański, Hanna Jankowiak, Lajos Nagy, Sandor Kovacs, Laszlo Huzsvai, Jozsef Popp, Janos Posta and Angela Soltesz

Abstract

The aim of this study was to compare the characteristics of the productive lifetime (PLT) of sows kept on two farms, from the aspect of reasons for culling. The study was based on data from animals from two breeding farms in Hungary, using the data of 3493 crossbred Dutch Large White and Dutch Landrace sows (DLW × DL) between their first farrowing until the time of culling (2006 and 2012). For six years, the annual culling rate for both farms averaged 45%. The most frequent reasons for removal on both farms were reproductive problems (40%, 51%), leg problems (29%, 23%) and mortality (19%, 15%). There was a significant difference between the distributions of reasons for culling on the two farms (χ2=41.7, P≤0.001). The distributions of reasons for culling differed in three periods of sow breeding (Farm A: χ2=264.7, P≤0.001; Farm B: χ2=511.1, P≤0.001). The percentage of main removal reasons decreased, whereas the frequency of culling due to age increased. Using survival analysis (Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard model), significant differences were identified between the PLT of sows culled due to reproductive problems (P≤0.001), leg problems (P≤0.001) and old age (P≤0.001). Reproductive problems (HR: 1.34, P≤0.001) and leg problems (HR: 1.39, P≤0.001) were higher and culling due to old age (HR: 0.44, P≤0.001) was lower on Farm A compared to Farm B. There were no significant differences between the two farms in terms of mortality (HR: 0.99, P=0.923). Overall, the results can be useful for breeders of crossbred (DLW × DL) sow populations in more accurately defining their culling systems.