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  • Author: Kun Liu x
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Open access

Jiang Meng, Zhipeng Liu, Kun An and Meini Yuan

Abstract

In order to solve the dilemma between the smaller pressure loss and the larger flow measurement signal in traditional throttle flowmeters, a throttle structure with the inner-outer tube was designed and analyzed. The mathematical relationship model deduced from hydrodynamics showed there were three major parameters to determine the designed throttle structure. Furthermore, the optimal results were achieved by combining orthogonal test design and computational fluid dynamics by taking the ratio of differential pressure of inner-outer tube divided by that of anterior-posterior tube as the optimization goal. Finally, the simulation results with the best level parameters showed that the differential pressure of the anterior-posterior throttle could remain not only the smaller value among other parameters with the same structure of inner-outer tube. On the other hand, it was about one order magnitude less than differential pressure of V-cone flowmeter in the similar installation conditions with the flow velocity varying from 0.5 to 3.0 m/s. The designed inner-outer tube flowmeter can not only save manufacture costs, but also avoid the large sensitivity of pressure sensors, which may lead to a broader application in chemical and petrochemical enterprises.

Open access

Bo Hu, Yu-kun Jin, Wan-jiang Gu, Jun Liu, Hua-qin Qin, Chong Chen and Ying-yu Wang

Open access

Xiao-Ming Si, Yu-Hua Tian, Sha-Sha Zhang, Hua Gao, Kun Liu and Jing-Yu Jin

Abstract

The present study is aimed at testing the antidepressant--like effects and probable mechanisms of action of low molecular mass chondroitin sulfate (LMMCS) on depression induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) in mice. Four weeks of CUMS exposure resulted in depressive-like behavior, expressed by a significant decrease in the locomotor activity and sucrose consumption and increased immobility time in the forced swim test. Further, there was a significant reduction of 5-HT level in the hippocampus region of depressed mice. Treatment of mice for four weeks with LMMCS ameliorated significantly both the behavioral and biochemical changes induced by CUMS. These novel results suggest that LMMCS produces an antidepressant-like effect in mice subjected to CUMS, which might be related, at least in part, to the increase of 5-HT concentration in the hippocampus.

Open access

Ai-kun Ding, Li-wei Guo, Yong-kong Wang, Wei Liu, Cheng Li and Chang-yuan Wang

Abstract

Objective To study the mutual relationship between anti-HBx and IL-10, IL-12 or soluble Fas (sFas) in sera of patients with chronic HBV infection and to explore the importance of anti-HBx detection as well as its role in the development of chronic HBV infection.

Methods Total of 90 cases with chronic HBV infection were randomly selected, including 10 of asymptomatic carriers (ASC), 28 of chronic hepatitis B (CHB), 26 of liver cirrhosis (LC) and 26 patients of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Their clinical data and blood samples were collected, and serum was prepared and stored at -73℃. Anti-HBx was detected with an indirect ELISA established in our earlier research, and levels of IL-10, IL-12 and Fas were determined with commercial double-antibody sandwich ELISA kits. The mutual relationship between anti-HBx and IL-10, IL-12 or sFas in serum were analyzed with the software SPSS 20.0.

Results All levels of IL-10, IL-12 and sFas in peripheral blood showed a rising trend with development of chronic HBV infection. The levels of IL-10 in ASC, CHB, LC and HCC groups were 13.93 ± 14.40 ng/L, 39.38 ± 20.77 ng/L, 69.06 ± 46.37 ng/L and 62.82 ± 23.42 ng/L, respectively, levels of IL-12 in the 4 groups were 15.64 ± 23.04 ng/L, 68.50 ± 23.14 ng/L, 76.83 ± 12.82 ng/L and 83.74 ± 24.88 ng/L, respectively, and levels of sFas were 58.17 ± 77.42 ng/L, 179.88 ± 104.36 ng/L, 249.22 ± 107.80 ng/L and 252.98 ± 87.65 ng/L, respectively. Twenty-seven out of 90 patients showed a positive result for anti-HBx detection, including 1 in ASC, 4 in CHB, 12 in LC and 10 in HCC group. The levels of IL-10, IL-12 and sFas were higher in anti-HBx positive group than in negative group. Statistical analysis demonstrated significant differences of IL-10 and IL-12 between the two groups (P < 0.05), but the differences of sFas had no statistical significance (P = 0.094).

Conclusions Anti-HBx antibody is not protective, and is closely related to IL-10, IL-12 and sFas. It may be an important serum indicator for aggravation from chronic hepatitis B to liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with chronic HBV infection.