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Kuang Hongyu, Marisol García-Peña, Lúcio Borges de Araújo and Carlos Tadeu dos Santos Dias


The genotype by environment interaction (GEI)) has an influence on the selection and recommendation of cultivars. The aim of this work is to study the effect of GEI and evaluate the adaptability and stability of productivity (kg/ha) of nine maize genotypes using AMMI model (Additive Main effects and Multiplicative Interaction). The AMMI model is one of the most widely used statistical tools in the analysis of multiple-environment trials. It has two purposes, namely understanding complex GEI and increasing accuracy. Nevertheless, the AMMI model is a widely used tool for the analysis of multiple-environment trials, where the data are represented by a two-way table of GEI means. In the complete tables, least squares estimation for the AMMI model is equivalent to fitting an additive two-way ANOVA model for the main effects and applying a singular value decomposition to the interaction residuals. It assumes equal weights for all GEI means implicitly. The experiments were conducted in twenty environments, and the experimental design was a randomized complete block design with four repetitions. The AMMI model identified the best combinations of genotypes and environments with respect to the response variable. This paper concerns a basic and a common application of AMMI: yield-trial analysis without consideration of special structure or additional data for either genotypes or environments.

Open access

Anderson Cristiano Neisse, Jhessica Letícia Kirch and Kuang Hongyu


The presence of genotype-environment interaction (GEI) influences production making the selection of cultivars in a complex process. The two most used methods to analyze GEI and evaluate genotypes are AMMI and GGE Biplot, being used for the analysis of multi environment trials data (MET). Despite their different approaches, both models complement each other in order to strengthen decision making. However, both models are based on biplots, consequently, biplot-based interpretation doesn’t scale well beyond two-dimensional plots, which happens whenever the first two components don’t capture enough variation. This paper proposes an approach to such cases based on cluster analysis combined with the concept of medoids. It also applies AMMI and GGE Biplot to the adjusted data in order to compare both models. The data is provided by the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) and comes from the 14th Semi-Arid Wheat Yield Trial (SAWYT), an experiment concerning 50 genotypes of spring bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) germplasm adapted to low rainfall. It was performed in 36 environments across 14 countries. The analysis provided 25 genotypes clusters and 6 environments clusters. Both models were equivalent for the data’s evaluation, permitting increased reliability in the selection of superior cultivars and test environments.