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  • Author: Krzysztof Wach x
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Currently, the internationalisation of family businesses (FBs) is an increasingly important research area. Substantial numbers of FBs are forced to expand into foreign markets in order to survive and grow in the competitive environment. However various research findings show that internationalisation of FBs may proceed differently than in the case of firms with different ownership structure. The article is both theoretical and empirical. In the theoretical part it focuses on theoretical concepts of firm internationalisation and specifics of internationalisation of FBs, especially their motives for going international. In the empirical part the quantitative approach was adopted. The results of the survey are presented on the sample of 216 firms, including 88 FBs (were investigated with the use of a survey questionnaire). Then, the statistical analysis is carried out.


This paper concerns the assessment of the impact of tyre pressure and additional vehicle loading which is inconsistent with the manufacturer’s requirements on the results of wheel alignment measurement. a sample of results from tests performed on a second generation Toyota Prius and a fifth generation volkswagen Passat are presented. The tested vehicles differed in the types of front axle wheel suspension. an analysis of the obtained results was conducted. The analysis revealed differences between the results of reference tests performed in accordance with the requirements of vehicle manufacturers and those conducted for incorrectly prepared vehicles. The values of these differences depended, inter alia, on the type of suspension.


This paper concerns the use of a prototype measuring instrument for conducting measurements of the linear and angular displacements of a steered wheel in relation to the car body. The theoretical principles of the measurement are presented, as are the notation method and a solution to the system of equations of the geometric constraints of the instrument’s mechanism. In the research section, the manner in which the measurements were conducted is discussed and sample results are described. A preliminary analysis of the results is performed in the summary section.


This paper concerns the determination of the initial configuration of a mechanism of a prototypical instrument for measuring the translation and rotation of a steered wheel. It covers the determination of coordinates of characteristic points of the mechanism. They were measured using a ROMER measuring arm. In the paper the methodology of measurements is discussed, and in addition the results obtained are presented and their analysis conducted.


Rapid internationalisation is a very popular research theme internationally. Verifying the links between familiness of the investigated firms and the accelerated internationalisation among Polish family firms can be very promising. The objective of the paper is to identify the rapid internationalisation path of Polish family firms while going international from the comparative perspective of the familiness. The paper presents the research results of the survey conducted in the turn of 2013-2014 among 216 firms, including 88 family businesses. Based on the calculations we can assume that the average time of internationalisation measured from the establishment is the longer in case of family firms than non-family firms. It can be with the line to the statement that born globals are more frequently met among non-family firms.

Development of Small Business Sector in Slovakia in 1993-2006

The main focus of the article is to elaborate on the importance and role of small and medium-sized enterprises in the Slovak economy. The authors show the development tendencies of the SME sector in Slovakia in the years of 1993-2006. Where it was possible the authors enumerated the data for the year 2007. The paper analyses the state of the sector of small and medium-sized enterprises, seeking to understand the causes of its relative strength and weakness. The share of the SME sector in all the registered enterprises in Slovakia is convergent with the whole EU average and it amounts to 99.8%. In Slovakia the share of microenterprises amounts to 79.3% which is the lowest feature in the EU. It means that the situation in Slovakia seems to be better for the economy, as the microenterprises do not have significant impact on the national employment and the GDP. In Slovakia the share of SMEs in total employment is crucial and amounts to 61.2%. A present-day share of the SME sector in both export and import volumes is more than 1/3 of the total volume of foreign trade of Slovakia.

Application of Platelet Rich Plasma in Sports Medicine

Any new method of treatment is associated with high expectations for its success, particularly if the therapy is based not only on the premise of achieving a symptomatic effect, but also improving functional quality and repairing structurally damaged tissues. Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) application was shown to be a successful catalyst in the healing process for a wide variety of conditions in animal and human models. However, its use has been controversial due to many types of the PRP definition, optimal concentration, and modalities of implementation. In the qualification of patients for PRP treatment, not only should medical indications be considered, but also the role of participation in therapy with a physiotherapist supervising physical parameters and techniques used during recovery time. Further study is required in order to define optimal handling procedures of PRP injection. Long-term follow up will reveal if the promise of this substance can be realized and implemented to maximize its potential as a therapeutic remedy.


Purpose: The article discusses the pace of internationalization by empirically verifying the speed of internationalization of Polish international firms and identifying which pattern is more frequently used by international startups from Poland: born global or born regional.

Methodology: The article employs a quantitative approach. It builds on a sample of 355 international businesses from Poland (CATI survey).

Findings: By using t test, U test, and ANOVA, the analysis showed a correlation between the company’s international strategy as a planning instrument and the speed and scope of internationalization.

Research limitations/implications: Based on prior studies from other parts of the globe, we assume that among Polish companies the number of born regionals – i.e. businesses that are international from their inception – is growing, while their activity is mainly restricted to the European Union. Among Polish international firms, there are many born global. In the studied sample (selected randomly), the share of born globals was 61.5%, and global startups 43%, which is a very high rate. The results enable to adopt a hypothesis that the number of Polish-born regionals is relatively high in comparison with the traditional path and born globals.

Originality/value: The article describes one of the first studies to (i) capture the phenomenon of born regionals in Poland and (ii) enrich empirical studies on emerging markets such as Poland.


Purpose: Strategy determines the patterns of internationalization. The speed, scale, and scope of internationalization are important dimensions from the perspective of firms’ behaviors and activities. The aim of the article is to identify and verify the relationship between the international strategy and its impact on three dimensions of the studied phenomenon.

Methodology: The article uses a quantitative approach. The survey was conducted on a sample of 355 internationalized firms from Poland, varying in size.

Findings: The analysis with t test and U test (ANOVA) shows a correlation between a company’s international strategy as a planning instrument and the speed and scope of internationalization.

Research limitations/implications: While considering a firm’s development, especially its international growth, one should plan the activities related to entering into foreign markets. The results presented in this article are just a starting point for further analyses. In an attempt to eliminate its limitations, further research should focus on building a comprehensive model that includes the remaining components of international strategy and other categories that stimulate internationalization processes.

Originality: The originality of this article lies in three elements: (i) the article comprehensively captures the scale, scope, and speed of internationalization at the same time, (ii) the strategy is introduced as a determining factor of the scale, scope, and speed of internationalization, and (iii) the article enriches empirical studies about emerging markets such as Poland.