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Krzysztof Roman Brom and Krzysztof Szopa

Abstract

Environmental adaptation of molluscs during evolution has led to form biomineral exoskeleton – shell. The main compound of their shells is calcium carbonate, which is represented by calcite and/or aragonite. The mineral part, together with the biopolymer matrix, forms many types of microstructures, which are differ in texture. Different types of internal shell microstructures are characteristic for some bivalve groups. Studied bivalve species (freshwater species – duck mussel (Anodonta anatina Linnaeus, 1758) and marine species – common cockle (Cerastoderma edule Linnaeus, 1758), lyrate Asiatic hard clam (Meretrix lyrata Sowerby II, 1851) and blue mussel (Mytilus edulis Linnaeus, 1758)) from different locations and environmental conditions, show that the internal shell microstructure with the shell morphology and thickness have critical impact to the ability to survive in changing environment and also to the probability of surviving predator attack. Moreover, more detailed studies on molluscan structures might be responsible for create mechanically resistant nanomaterials.

Open access

Paulina Pyka, Krzysztof Szopa and Aleksandra Gawęda

Abstract

Large crystals of kyanite (<15 cm in size) occur in quartz segregations in Paleozoic gneissses on Baranec Mt., Western Tatra Mountains, northern Slovakia. Blue kyanite crystals coexist with quartz and plagioclase. The kyanite contains inclusions of apatite, monazite. gamet, rutile and biotite and overgrowths of retrograde sillimanite. muscovite and biotite. The kyanite crystals are the largest found up to now in the Tatra crystalline massif or in the other Western Carpathians crystalline cores. Kyanite. with the co-existing mineral assemblage, is indicative of a HP stage duiing Hercynian metamorphism of the Western Tatra Mountains.

Open access

Krzysztof Szopa, Roman Włodyka and David Chew

Abstract

The main products of volcanic activity in the teschenite-picrite association (TPA) are shallow, sub-volcanic intrusions, which predominate over extrusive volcanic rocks. They comprise a wide range of intrusive rocks which fall into two main groups: alkaline (teschenite, picrite, syenite, lamprophyre) and subalkaline (dolerite). Previous 40Ar/39Ar and 40K/40Ar dating of these rocks in the Polish Outer Western Carpathians, performed on kaersutite, sub-silicic diopside, phlogopite/biotite as well as on whole rock samples has yielded Early Cretaceous ages. Fluorapatite crystals were dated by the U-Pb LA-ICP-MS method to obtain the age of selected magmatic rocks (teschenite, lamprophyre) from the Cieszyn igneous province. Apatite-bearing samples from Boguszowice, Puńców and Lipowa yield U-Pb ages of 103± 20 Ma, 119.6 ± 3.2 Ma and 126.5 ± 8.8 Ma, respectively. The weighted average age for all three samples is 117.8 ± 7.3 Ma (MSWD = 2.7). The considerably smaller dispersion in the apatite ages compared to the published amphibole and biotite ages is probably caused by the U-Pb system in apatite being less susceptible to the effects of hydrothermal alternation than the 40Ar/39Ar or 40K/40Ar system in amphibole and/or biotite. Available data suggest that volcanic activity in the Silesian Basin took place from 128 to 103 Ma with the the main magmatic phase constrained to 128-120 Ma.

Open access

Krzysztof Roman Brom, Krzysztof Szopa, Tomasz Krzykawski, Tomasz Brachaniec and Mariusz Andrzej Salamon

Abstract

Shelly fauna was exposed to increased pressure exerted by shell-crushing durophagous predators during the so-called Mesozoic Marine Revolution that was initiated in the Triassic. As a result of evolutionary ‘arms race’, prey animals such as bivalves, developed many adaptations to reduce predation pressure (e.g. they changed lifestyle and shell morphology in order to increase their mechanical strength). For instance, it was suggested that Pectinidae had acquired the ability to actively swim to avoid predator attack during the early Mesozoic. However, pectinids are also know to have a specific shell microstructure that may effectively protect them against predators. For instance, we highlight that the shells of some recent pectinid species (e.g. Pecten maximus) that display cross-lamellar structures in the middle part playing a significant role in the energy dissipation, improve the mechanical strength. In contrast, the outer layers of these bivalves are highly porous, which allow them to swim more efficiently by reducing the shell weight. Pectinids are thus perfect examples of animals optimising their skeletons for several functions. We suggest that such an optimisation of their skeletons for multiple functions likely occurred as a results of increased predation pressure during the so-called Mesozoic Marine Revolution.

Open access

Tomasz Brachaniec, Krzysztof Szopa and Łukasz Karwowski

Abstract

Four newly discovered moldavites from the East and West Gozdnica pits, SW Poland, are characterized. All specimens, including other four, reported earlier, are from Upper Miocene fluvial sediments of the Gozdnica Formation. Their weight varies between 0.529 and 1.196 g. The moldavites are bottle green in colour and have bubbles and inclusions of lechatelierite. Low degree of corrosion suggests short river transport, apparently eastward from Lusatia.

Open access

Aleksandra Gawęda, Krzysztof Szopa and David Chew

Abstract

This study presents apatite LA-ICP-MS U-Pb age and trace elements concentrations data from different granite types from the Tatra Mountains, Poland. Apatite from monazite and xenotime-bearing High Tatra granite was dated at 339 ± 5 Ma. The apatite LREE patterns reflect two types of magmas that contributed to this layered magma series. Apatite from a hybrid allanite-bearing diorite from the Goryczkowa Unit was dated at 340 ± 4 Ma with apatite LREE depletion reflecting the role of allanite and titanite during apatite crystallization. Apatite crystals from a hybrid cumulative rock from the Western Tatra Mountains were dated at 344 ± 3 Ma. Apatite is one of the main REE carriers in this sample and exhibit flat REE patterns.

Taking into account the relatively low closure temperature of the U-Pb system in apatite (350–550°C), the c. 340 Ma apatite ages mark the end of high temperature tectonometamorphic activity in the Tatra Mountains.

Open access

Rafał Warchulski and Krzysztof Szopa

Abstract

Exploitation on Zn-Pb ores in Upper Silesia region dates back to the XIII century. Analyzed slags are associated with Hohenlohe smelting plant which started its work in 1804 as an iron smelter, and continued as zinc smelter since 1873. Waste material from smelting plant production was stored in Katowice - Wełnowiec, although nowadays most of it has been used for commercial purposes. Slags are composed of silicates and aluminosilicates, e.g. willemite, pyroxene- and melilite-group, K-feldspar accompanied by silico-phosphates close to perhamite, harrisonite and arsenate-chloride with composition similar to nealite. Chemical composition of most phases is simple with some unique substitutions in case of Sr and Ce

Open access

Sylwia Skreczko, Weronika Nadłonek and Krzysztof Szopa

Abstract

Peat bog deposits provide a very important record of past environmental conditions, preserving biotic and abiotic processes that occurred in the vicinity of the bog. In this study, we examined three peat bog profiles from Kietrz, located in the micro-region of the Głubczycki Plateau, southern Poland.

The objective of this study was to determine the type of peat occurring in this area, through examination of its mineral composition, and evaluation of the total carbon and total sulphur content. In addition, we measured peat reaction (pH) and identified floral and faunal components occurring within the peat deposits.

The peat comprises primarily of fragments of fossilized plant and mollusk remains, as well as minerals (calcium sulphates, calcium carbonates, and pyrites). Additionally, an assemblage of iron oxides/hydroxides, Kfeldspar, apatite, zircon, and quartz grains was identified. A neutral and/or light alkalinity was recorded for the peat deposits, but an increase in acidity (pH) with increasing depth through each peat profile was also recorded. We observed a positive correlation between the pH and chemical composition of deposits, where a significant presence of calcite is associated with higher reaction (higher pH), whilst a lower pH is characteristic for sediments where carbonates are rare. The recognized species of mollusks are typical of shallow, fresh-water stagnant reservoirs with a high fluctuation of water level.

Open access

Paulina Pyka, Aleksandra Gawęda, Krzysztof Szopa, Axel Müller and Magdalena Sikorska

Abstract

In the Tatra Mountains (Slovakia) metamorphic complex, kyanite-quartz segregations with biotite-rich selvage occur in mylonitized mica schists. In this paper, the problem of fluid flow and aluminium mobility during the uplift of the crystalline massif, and the position of the segregations in the history of Western Tatra metamorphic complex, is adressed. The reaction Alm + Rt ➔ Ilm + Ky + Qtz is considered to be the result of a pressure drop from above to below 9 kbar. Ti-in-biotite geothermometry shows the temperature range to be 579-639°C that is related to heating and decompression associated with granite intrusion. Major-element mass-balance calculations show that Al remained stable in the selvage + segregation system whereas other elements (e.g. Cr, HFSE) were mobilized. The kyanite-quartz segregations formed from local fluids generated during dehydration of the metapelitic rocks during uplift. The main mechanism was likely diffusion-driven mass-transfer into extension-related cracks.

Open access

Krzysztof Sas-Nowosielski, Sylwia Szopa and Agnieszka Kowalczyk

Abstract

Introduction. Not many studies have been performed in Poland on using mobile applications from the sport and fitness category and exergames. The main purpose of this study was to investigate to what extent such technologies are used by youth. Material and methods. A total of 435 pupils (including 263 females) aged 17.78 ± 1.19 years took part in the study. A diagnostic survey was carried out; the data were collected using a questionnaire developed by the authors and a scale assessing the stage of exercise change developed by Marcus, Rakowski, and Rossi (1992). Descriptive statistics (means and standard deviations) were used to describe the data and to test differences between groups; a chi2 test was used with Cramér’s V statistic as a measure of effect size in contingency tables larger than 2 × 2. Results. Of the 435 participants, approximately a third (30.8%) had used some type of fitness application. The most frequently downloaded applications were exercise plans, such as Weider’s Aerobic Six and applications for physical activity monitoring (steps, distance), such as Endomondo. Exergames were less popular. Only 5.29% of the respondents claimed they used exergames regularly, although about every third person used them regularly, especially males. Conclusions. Eight of ten respondents held the view that such applications are useful but are something that they could do without; only one in ten could not imagine exercising without such applications. Most of the latter category of users were persons at the action stage, next - persons at the preparation stage, but - what is interesting - none at the maintenance stage. It seems, then, that such applications may be - and in the light of the data obtained really are - an indispensable aid for people at the early stages of developing a habit of regular physical activity.