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Krzysztof Szkucik, Renata Pyz-Łukasik, Marta Wójcik and Michał Gondek


The research material included 96 slaughter rabbit carcasses. Half of them came from the animals managed in small-scale backyard farming units where animals were fed a natural ingredient diet, while the other half was from rabbits kept under commercial production conditions and fed commercial rabbit pellets. The thigh and saddle muscle samples were collected from each carcass to establish a content of ubiquinone (CoQ10) and crude protein along with its collagen level. Determination of tissue coenzyme Q10 (UQ10) was carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography with some modification. Crude protein concentration was estimated using Kjeldahl procedure, while total collagen content by the method of Stegemann modified by Hurych-Chvapil, using hydrolysis according to Möhler and Volley. Ubiquinone level in slaughter rabbit tissue ranged between 76 and 127 μg/g tissue. The studies indicated that rabbit rearing system and muscle type are determinants of CoQ10 content. Meat of rabbits managed under the traditional backyard farming system exhibited higher CoQ10 concentration as compared to that determined in rabbits from the commercial rabbitry. Additionally, the CoQ10 level in the saddle was significantly higher than that in the thigh muscles, and the relationships was noted in both types of rabbit production systems. When the CoQ10 content was expressed per gram of fibrillar protein, there were not significant differences between saddle and thigh muscles. The correlation coefficient between ubiquinone and fibrillar protein averaged to 0.94. The studies also demonstrated a higher protein level in the saddle than in thigh muscles. However, no differences in protein concentration were reported in respect to the rabbit farming system. The protein composition in the saddle muscles, irrespective of a rabbit production system, revealed significantly lower collagen content compared to the proteins in thigh muscles. The obtained results and data from literature provide evidence that rabbit meat, especially from the traditional (organic) management system, is one of the best sources of animal protein and ubiquinone Q10.

Open access

Łukasz Drozd, Monika Ziomek, Krzysztof Szkucik, Waldemar Paszkiewicz, Monika Maćkowiak-Dryka, Zbigniew Bełkot and Michał Gondek


Introduction: The objective of the present research was to carry out a comparative assessment of copper, zinc, and selenium concentrations in the meat of edible land snails collected in Poland (Helix pomatia, Cornu aspersum maxima, and Cornu aspersum aspersum), as well as to determine the effect of preliminary processing of Roman snails (Helix pomatia) on the content of the aforementioned elements. Material and Methods: In the first stage, determinations were made on unprocessed snail meat. In the second stage, the study focused on Roman snails and consisted in an additional evaluation of frozen meat after full processing. Zinc and copper contents were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry and the selenium content was established by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Results: The selenium content differed significantly among all three species. The copper content in Roman snails differed significantly from that in farmed snails. No significant difference in the zinc level was noted among the three snail species. The selenium content in raw and processed meat of Roman snails did not show any significant difference while the copper and zinc level was significantly higher in processed meat samples. Conclusion: The present research on the meat of edible snails showed different levels of selenium, copper, and zinc, depending on the species, collection site, and subjection to processing.

Open access

Krzysztof Szkucik, Monika Ziomek, Waldemar Paszkiewicz, Łukasz Drozd, Michał Gondek and Przemysław Knysz



The objective was to determine the content of fatty acids in edible snail fat by snail species, collection site, and processing stage.

Material and Methods

The research material comprised 180 edible fat samples from the three genera of edible snails collected in Poland: free-living Helix pomatia (HP) and two cultivated Cornu subspecies: C. aspersa maxima (CAM) and C. aspersum aspersum (CAA). All snails came from the Greater Poland and Lower Silesian Provinces: HP from their natural habitat and CAM and CAA from heliciculture farms. The studies focused on the raw meat, cooked meat, and frozen meat processing stages. Fatty acid (FA) profiles were determined by the gas chromatography method.


Helix pomatia fat showed a higher saturated fatty acid (SFA) content, whereas the fat of Cornu genus snails had a higher unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) component, i.e. monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). Thermal processing of snail meat increased all the determined SFA and decreased all the PUFA values, and increased the content of C18:1, C20:1, and C22:1 acids in the MUFA group. The material collection site had limited impact on FA content as differences were noted only in levels of C18:1, C18:2 n6, and C20:5. The differences pertained only to the fat of farmed snails of the Cornu genus.


Due to the high content of UFA and a favourable ratio of n6:n3 acids and PUFA:SFA, snail fat can be regarded as nutritionally valuable.