The following paper presents executed at the Institute of Aviation in Warsaw student internship program and a program of industrial internships for young researchers technical universities of the country and from abroad. Many years of experience staff and a modern database of certified, modern laboratories can convey knowledge, the level of which is highly esteemed in the world. Conducted new projects and specialized training organizations in the design and maintenance of the Institute of Aviation enable trainees to familiarize themselves with modern technologies in the wider area around the aviation. The author presented the work program proposed the possibility of potential trainees in the laboratories of aerodynamics, strength, testing equipment and installation of air, environmental and motor. Posted framework programs, which are carried out by students and trainees. At the end of the shows achievements, and plans for the future. Run this way MARKETING Aviation Institute allows popularize unit in the country and abroad. Measurable benefits include contacts with similar companies in the world, as well as gaining a new perspective valuable employees.
The authors of the paper presented some of the models describing the process of micro-cracks’ development. In this study, the process of a selected model of micro-cracking was analyzed. In the model it was assumed that the damage to the material has some “thermodynamic properties” or rather universal properties inherent in most complex systems. In order to calculate the long-term fatigue strength properties of a structure, it is important to have a good understanding of the distribution parameters of the number of defects of different sizes. A model was built using the entropy principle, which is effectively used to test complex systems that are difficult to formalize. As a result of many experimental studies it was found that the development of fatigue damage is closely related to the process of plastic deformation of the material at the contact point of local defects. The results of computer calculations and simulations led to the conclusions presented in the final part of this paper.
Parachute systems are in widespread use in aviation. Up to now, parachutes are the most uncertain air vehicles because of their complex and unsteady opening characteristics, changes in geometry up to 30% and vulnerability from unsteady atmospheric turbulence. Fatigue is a problem that the designers of long living parachute systems need to cope with. Authors demonstrate complexity of parachute exploitation and means to lower opening forces and extend service life without influencing safety.
Krzysztof Perkowski, Janusz Sokołowski and Mikołaj Szafran
Usability of high porosity ceramics for the separation of oily impurities
Organic impurities fallen to the ground water and to surface waters (rivers, lakes, seas and oceans) contribute to the degradation of the fauna and flora. Taking into account the public welfare, as the natural environment is, studies have been undertaken to develop a cheap and effective system for the purification of water from finely dispersed petroleum derivatives. The idea of the solution proposed consists in using a separator with high porosity ceramics of the pore size up to 100 ¨m, of high water permeability and ability to separate oily impurities of very tiny particle size. To improve the efficiency of the process the affinity of the filtering surface to organic particles was increased by the use of water-repellent media. The process of the separation of oily impurities was enhanced by means of ultrasounds of the 18 kHz frequency and various vibration energies.
Research and development institutions have a wide range of competences in their fields of scientific and technical activity. They also often have some unique capabilities to do research and development (R&D). However, these possibilities are often known only to a small group of industry specialists and few parliamentary representatives. There is also a lack of information about research capabilities of R&D institutes in industry, especially among small and medium enterprises.
The aim of the article is to present the concept of a multidisciplinary research project aimed at testing by a scientific research institution the possibility of using social media and modern techniques of visualization and computer simulation in aircraft reconstruction engineering. The authors propose to try the approach of marketing campaign capabilities of research and development institutions in a way similar to the action of raising funds for some purpose, but unlike this type of action, the campaign should be aimed at increasing technical awareness of the society. As part of the pilot program, the authors propose a virtual reconstruction of the construction of the Polish PZL P-50 Jastrząb fighter plane whose two prototypes were created before the outbreak of World War II. On the basis of analyses, calculations and computer simulations, in the second phase it is proposed to make a preliminary design of the aircraft with performance similar to the PZL P-50 on the basis of modern knowledge and the latest technologies available in aviation technology. One of the ways to encourage people to undertake creative work, including the restoration of historical objects, will allow them to gain valuable employment possibilities in R&D institute .
The combination of marketing techniques, using the power of social media, with the strictly engineering challenges of recreating a historic aircraft and designing its modern equivalent, gives the possibility to confirm the technical and organizational capabilities of the research and development institutions. On the basis of the above activities, a database of people interested in research and development activities of scientific institutions and their contribution to the reconstruction of historically important products of Polish technical thought will be built.
In the next article on synthesis of regulations, the authors presented the general legal requirements for rotorcraft, which is limited to US regulations, because the vast majority of world regulations are based on them. The Institute of Aviation in Warsaw has developed requirements concerning the construction and operation of rotorcraft in Poland. These requirements constitute an important contribution to the regulations of the Civil Aviation Authority which are in force in the air space of the Republic of Poland. This paper presents the legal situation of rotorcraft and compares the requirements for helicopters and gyroplane. The conclusions highlighted the differences that arise from regulations between helicopters and rotorcraft. The authors have suggested the necessity to separate provisions for the group of windmills, which is implemented in the regulations of the Civil Aviation Authority. The presented work is the second of a planned series of publications in which authors intend to bring some of the issues to the reader about the design aspects of aircraft in selected global aviation regulations.
Łukasz Jeziorek, Krzysztof Szafran and Paweł Skalski
The paper presents practical aspects of determining the amount of heat flow by measuring the distribution of surface temperature using the Temperature Sensitive Paint (TSP) method. The quantity measured directly with TSP is the intensity of the excited radiation, which is then converted to surface temperature. The article briefly presents three different methods for determining the heat transfer coefficient. Each of these methods is based on a separate set of assumptions and significantly influences the construction of the measuring station. The advantages of each of the presented methods are their individual properties, allowing to improve accuracy, reduce the cost of testing or the possibility of using them in tests of highly complex objects. For each method a mathematical model used to calculate the heat transfer coefficient is presented. For the steady state heat transfer test method that uses a heater of constant and known thermal power, examples of the results of our own research are presented, together with a comparison of the results with available data and a discussion of the accuracy of the results obtained.
Sławomir Cieślak, Wiesław Krzymień and Krzysztof Szafran
Hovercrafts are a universal means of transport intended for use on flat surfaces such as water, ice, snow, swamp, or sand. They are used in rescue operations and patrolling difficult areas inaccessible to other means of transport. The Institute of Aviation conducted acoustic measurements inside the cabin of the hovercraft to determine the source of the noise and the sound pressure exerted on the pilot and passengers. Assessment of the sources of noise in the cabin is made using the acoustic beamforming method. Assessment of the level of noise to which a pilot is exposed during the operation was prepared on the basis of a standard specifying the requirements and methods of determining occupational noise exposure .
The test results indicate a significant penetration of noise from the drivetrain into the cabin. It is recommended that a hovercraft pilot and operators use hearing protection in some specified conditions and during testing. Thus it is pointed out in the summary that additional soundproofing of the cabin is needed. The points of the greatest penetration of noise into the interior have been indicated.