Old maps are proven to be very useful when it comes to solution of the modern research problems and are widely used in various science disciplines connected with specification of mutual relations between elements of the geographical environment. This fact stems from the increased consciousness of unique information recorded on old maps, which at their time constituted a basis for subsequent cartographical studies. The geographical characteristics of the Vistula river were depicted in a handwritten 12-sheet map made the first half of the 18th century by Franciszek Florian Czaki, a military cartographer. On the basis of his own terrain mapping, Franciszek Florian Czaki succeeded in creation of his work, which was intended to provide an example for the designed, detailed map of Poland, ordered by Józef Aleksander Jabłonowski, the Nowogród voivode, and later by the king Stanisław August Poniatowski. The map was fully based on terrain mapping, which included such details as: settlement, road and water networks, forests, land relief as well as main types of ownership: crown-, church-, and nobility-owned.
The article collates guidelines concerning experimental construction of the S-N fatigue curves within a limited fatigue life range. An attempt is made to compare these guidelines, based on experimental data recorded during rotating bending of a notched specimen made of 42CrMo4. The recorded differences in fatigue life values between the constructed curves reach the maximum of 12.2%. According to the above guidelines, the number of tests in particular test series varies from 6 to 28. Based on the performed analysis a conclusion was made that the increase in the number of tests leads to the increase of accuracy but, on the other hand, remarkably increases the time of the experiment and, consequently, its cost. In this context, it is the research worker who, taking into account a possible future use of the fatigue curve, should individually decide about its accuracy.
Four manual classification devices for estimating pork carcass meat content, i.e. CGM, Fat-OMeat’er II, IM-03 and UltraFom 300 were tested. The experiment was carried out with properly selected raw material (n=141 pigs) from current deliveries for pig slaughter at the Meat Plant SKIBA S.A. in Chojnice. Pork raw material was derived from three different Polish regions and represented different types of fatness, different carcass weights (from 60 to 120 kg) and different sexes (half were gilts and half were barrows). The applied testing procedure was consistent with European Union regulations. The research resulted in the development of regression equations for estimating pork carcass meat content in Poland. These equations are of rectilinear type and use four (in the case of UltraFom 300) or two (in the case of other devices) measurements of backfat and longissimus dorsi muscle thickness located at a distance of 6 cm (CGM, IM-03) or 7 cm (Fat-OMeat’er II, UltraFom 300) from the backfat edge at the section between 3rd and 4th rib, counting ribs from the end (CGM, IM-03, Fat-O-Meat’er II) and also at the height of the last rib section (UltraFom 300). The prediction error does not exceed the termination value of 2.50% established by EU regulations and amounts to 2.16% for CGM, 2.18% for Fat-O-Meat’er II, 1.89% for IM-03 and 2.07% for UltraFom 300. New regression equations have been applied in the meat industry since 12 December 2011.