Krzysztof Kostro, Urszula Lisiecka, Andrzej Żmuda, Krzysztof Niemczuk, Krzysztof Stojecki and Iwona Taszkun
Expression of CD4, CD8, and CD25 surface markers on T lymphocytes and levels of IFNγ, IL-10, and TNF-α in colostrum and milk were determined in sows vaccinated against Trueperella pyogenes in the final stage of pregnancy. The autovaccine, prepared from Trueperella pyogenes, administered twice to pregnant sows six and three weeks before the anticipated delivery significantly increased the percentages of TCD4+, TCD8+, and TCD25+ as well as levels of IFNγ, TNF-α, and IL-10 in colostrum and milk. The enhanced immune potential of colostrum effectively protected the piglets against T. pyogenes infections during weaning and thus reduced the economic losses on the particular farm concerned, where T. pyogenes infections occur endemically. Knowledge of the profile of cellular and humoral immune response in colostrum and milk of vaccinated sows will enable the design of a T. pyogenes infection prophylactic programme for suckling pigs and weaners, which are most susceptible to infections.
Paweł Wojtaszczyk, Krzysztof Kostro, Krzysztof Niemczuk, Urszula Lisiecka, Krzysztof Stojecki and Andrzej Żmuda
The Forkhead genes (transcription complex Fox) play many important roles in the maintenance and determination of biological processes underlying carbon-based life. The expression of Fox genes occurring as a result of reciprocal interactions at the transcriptional level influences the correct function of the immune system as regards the context of general activity of immunological parameters, as well as exposure to aetiological agents. In the case of model organisms and species, in which the knowledge about genomic sequences is incomplete, understanding the above-mentioned transcriptional complex is still insufficient, despite the existence of numerous scientific publications. It is worth noting that Fox genes exist in amphioxus Branchiostoma lanceolatum and in the majority of species they were not characterised. Among many coding sequences included in the transcriptional complex Forkhead, Foxp3, Foxn1, and Foxj1 genes are of a great importance from immunological point of view, being partially jointly responsible for determining features related to productivity. The paper provides general characterisation of selected Fox genes and is an introduction to the presentation of new data, which can be applied at the level of biological differentiation of the populations of domestic and wild animals.
Krzysztof Kostro, Krzysztof Stojecki, Maciej Grzybek and Krzysztof Tomczuk
Vector-borne infection constitutes a significant health issue in dogs worldwide. Recent reports point to an increasing number of canine vector-borne disease cases in European countries, including Poland. Canine babesiosis caused by various Babesia species is a protozoal tick-borne disease with worldwide distribution and significant veterinary importance. The development and application of molecular methods have increased our knowledge about canine babesiosis, its prevalence, and clinical and pathological aspects of the infection. Parasitologists and veterinary surgeons need an accurate description of the species responsible for canine babesiosis to improve diagnostic and therapeutic methods, as well as predictions for the course of the disease. Therefore, we decided to summarise recent knowledge concerning Babesia species and B. canis.
Jacek Sroka, Zygmunt Giżejewski, Angelina Wójcik-Fatla, Krzysztof Stojecki, Ewa Bilska-Zając, Jacek Dutkiewicz, Tomasz Cencek, Jacek Karamon, Violetta Zając, Paweł Kusyk, Joanna Dąbrowska and Maciej Kochanowski
The purpose of this study was to assess the possible influence of beavers on the contamination of lake water with zoonotic parasites Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp., with respect to the risk to human health. A total of 79 water samples were taken around the habitats of beavers from 14 localities situated in the recreational Masurian Lake District (north-eastern Poland). Water was sampled in the spring and autumn seasons, at different distances from beavers’ lodges (0-2, 10, 30, and 50 m). The samples were examined for the presence of (oo)cysts of zoonotic protozoa Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. by direct fluorescence assay (DFA) and by nested and real time PCR. By DFA, the presence of Giardia cysts was found in 36 samples (45.6%) and the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in 26 samples (32.9%). Numbers of Giardia cysts, Cryptosporidium oocysts, and summarised (oo)cysts of both parasites showed a significant variation depending on locality. The numbers of Giardia cysts significantly decreased with the distance from beavers’ lodges while the numbers of Cryptosporidium oocysts did not show such dependence. The amount of Giardia cysts in samples collected in spring was approximately 3 times higher than in autumn. Conversely, a larger number of Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in samples collected in autumn than in spring. By PCR, Giardia DNA was found in 38 samples (48.1%) whereas DNA of Cryptosporidium was found in only 7 samples (8.9%). Eleven Giardia isolates were subjected to phylogenetic analysis by restriction fragment length polymorphism PCR or sequencing which evidenced their belonging to zoonotic assemblages: A (3 isolates) and B (8 isolates). In conclusion, water in the vicinity of beavers’ lodges in the tested region was markedly contaminated with (oo)cysts of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp., which confirms the potential role of beavers as a reservoir of these parasites and indicates a need for implementation of appropriate preventive measures to protect tourists’ health.