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Romuald Górski, Krzysztof Sobieralski, Marek Siwulski, Barbara Frąszczak and Iwona Sas-Golak

Abstract

The effect of different Trichoderma species on the yield of Agaricus bisporus strains was investigated in this study. For the first time, the effect of different Trichoderma species on the yield of Agaricus bisporus strains was determined under fully controlled conditions. Four button mushroom strains were used: Somycel 53, Somycel 11, Amycel 2200, and Polmycel 31. The cultivation substrate was inoculated with the following Trichoderma species: T. aggressivum f. europaeum, T. atroviride, T. hamatum, T. harzianum, T. inhamatum, T. koningii, and T. longibrachiatum. Except for T. atroviride, all the Trichoderma isolates reduced the yield of the button mushroom strains.

Open access

Alina Kałużewicz, Romuald Górski, Krzysztof Sobieralski, Marek Siwulski and Iwona Sas-Golak

Abstract

The aim of the research was to assess the influence of calcium chloride and calcium lactate irrigation on the yield volume and dry matter content in two champignon strains, ie Amycel 2200 and Italspawn F59. When both strains were irrigated with calcium lactate, there was a significant decrease observed in the yield when the concentration of the solution was 0.6%. On the other hand, when calcium chloride was applied to the Italspawn F59 strain, there was a significant decrease in the yield when the concentration was as low as 0.4%, whereas the yield of the Amycel 2200 strain dropped when the concentration of calcium chloride was 0.6%. The irrigation with calcium chloride and calcium lactate had influence on the content of dry matter in the champignon carpophores. When the solutions under investigation were applied at concentrations of 0.4 and 0.6%, there was a significant increase observed in the content of dry matter in both strains.

Open access

Krzysztof Sobieralski, Marek Siwulski and Iwona Sas-Golak

ABSTRACT

The importance of functional products on the world food market is increasing systematically. This has resulted from enhanced consumer awareness that health improvement may be attained through appropriate nutrition. Functional products are targeted to different groups of consumers who have increased nutrient requirements or are designed to improve specific functions of the organism. The market for functional food is also developing in Poland, but its growth rate is much slower than in other European countries. Moreover, knowledge on issues concerning functional food among Polish consumers is also low. Vegetables and mushrooms occupy an important position among functional food products due to their contents of many bioactive components that have a beneficial effect on human health and sense of well being. Vegetables in an everyday diet are natural sources of dietary fibre, vitamins, minerals, anthocyanin, carotenoids and substances with an anti-carcinogenic effect. The fruiting bodies of both cultivated and wild-growing mushrooms contain several active substances, including polysaccharides, triterpenoids, specific proteins and phenolic compounds. Their positive effect for humans results from the interaction of different active components contained in their fruiting bodies. Several health-promoting properties of mushrooms have been documented, including anti-cancer, immunostimulatory, antioxidant, antibacterial, antiviral and anti-diabetic effects. Consumers should have knowledge on the potential for health improvement thanks to the inclusion of vegetables and mushrooms in their everyday diets.

Open access

Krzysztof Sobieralski, Marek Siwulski, Jolanta Lisiecka, Jan Szymański and Agnieszka Jasińska

Carpophore Dry Matter Content of Several Agaricus Bisporus (Lange) Imbach and Agaricus Bitorquis (Quel) Sacc. Strains Found in Natural Habitats

Carpophore dry matter content of several strains of A. bisporus and A. bitorquis obtained from natural habitats was investigated. Two cultivated mushroom strains were used as the control. It was found that the dry matter content of the fruiting bodies differed depending on the strain as well as the species of the analyzed mushrooms. The highest carpophore dry matter content was determined in the strains obtained from the natural environment. The highest dry matter content in the fruiting bodies was determined in A. bisporus Ab/ZW/4 - 11.2% and A. bitorquis Ab/L/11 - 9.6%, as well as in the cultivated strain K26 - 9.3%.

Open access

Romuald Górski, Krzysztof Sobieralski and Marek Siwulski

Abstract

Investigations concerning the effect of hemp oil on mortality of the foxglove aphid (Aulacorthum solani Kalt.) and the two spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) were conducted in the years 2014-2015. The tested essential oil was produced at the Institute of Natural Fibers and Medicinal Plants in Poznan. It was obtained by steam distillation of fresh panicles of Polish hemp cultivars, Beniko, Bialobrzeskie and Silesia, with low cannabinoid contents, including THC (max. 0.2% plant fresh matter). The effect of essential oil on the investigated pests was determined following the application of aqueous emulsion solution at 0.02, 0.05 and 0.1%. Mortality of agrophages was determined 24, 48 and 72 h after treatment. In this study a very high efficacy of the essential oil produced from hemp panicles was found in the reduction of population size of the foxglove aphid (A. solani). Already at 24 h after its application at a concentration of 0.1% pest mortality rate was 98.20%, while after 48 h it reached 100%. A significant, although much lesser effect of oil on the aphid population was recorded when applying it at 0.05%, with the mortality rate of the true bug after 72 h amounting to 57.33%. Essential oil also showed an effect on the two spotted spider mite (T. urticae). Following the oil application, irrespective of its concentration, a significant effect on mite mortality was observed. Its action was the strongest at its highest concentration, ie 0.1%, while mortality of the pest at 24, 48 and 72 h after treatment was 83.28, 95.83 and 98.72%, respectively.

Open access

Lidia Błaszczyk, Marek Siwulski, Krzysztof Sobieralski, Jolanta Lisiecka and Małgorzata Jędryczka

Abstract

Fungi of the genus Trichoderma are a very large group of microorganisms that play a significant role in the environment. They use a variety of mechanisms to colonise various ecological niches. Several Trichoderma spp. positively affect plants by stimulating plant growth, and protecting plants from fungal and bacterial pathogens. They are used in biological plant protection as biofungicides as well as in bioremediation. Members of the genus Trichoderma are also utilised in various industry branches – mainly in the production of enzymes, antibiotics, and other metabolites, but also of biofuel. Moreover, the genus Trichoderma comprises edible and medicinal mushrooms, but also the pathogens of humans. Currently, Trichoderma has entered the genomic era and parts of genome sequences are publicly available. This is why, Trichoderma fungi have the potential to be used for human needs to an even greater extent than before. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to increase the efficiency and safety of the application of these fungi.

Open access

Dorota Frużyńska-Jóźwiak, Marek Siwulski, Krzysztof Sobieralski, Iwona Sas-Golak and Lidia Błaszczyk

Impact of Trichoderma Isolates on the Mycelium Development of Wild Strains of Coprinus Comatus (Müll.) S.F. Gray

The impact of different isolates of three species of the Trichoderma genus on the development of wild strains of Coprinus comatus mycelium was investigated. Nine strains of C. comatus obtained from natural sites and one cultivated strain were used in the trail. The following Trichoderma isolates were used: T. aggressivum f. europaeum, T. longibrachiatum and T. atroviride. It was found that isolates of T. aggressivum f. europaeum reduced the development of the C. comatus mycelium to a much greater degree than isolates of T. longibrachiatum and T. atroviride.

Open access

Krzysztof Sobieralski, Marek Siwulski, Monika Kommon-Żelazowska, Lidia Błaszczyk, Iwona Sas-Golak and Dorota Frużyńska-Jóźwiak

Impact of Trichoderma Pleurotum and T. Pleuroticola Isolates on Yielding of Pleurotus Ostreatus (FR.) Kumm

The influence of substrate infestation with Trichoderma pleurotum and T. pleuroticola isolates on yielding of two commercial strains of Pleurotus ostreatus was investigated. The examined P. ostreatus strains growing on substrates infested with Trichoderma isolates showed a considerable yield decline. T. pleuroticola isolates were found to exert a greater unfavorable impact on P. ostreatus yields than T. pleurotum isolates. The performed experiments demonstrated that the response of the examined P. ostreatus strains to infestations with T. pleurotum and T. pleuroticola isolates was similar.

Open access

Krzysztof Sobieralski, Marek Siwulski, Dorota Frużyńska-Jóźwiak, Lidia Błaszczyk, Iwona Sas-Golak and Agnieszka Jasińska

Impact of Infections with two Trichoderma Aggressivum F. Europaeum Isolates on the Yielding of Some Wild Strains of Agaricus Bisporus (Lange) Imbach

The effect of infections with Trichoderma aggressivum f. europaeum on the yielding of seven wild and one commercial strain of Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach. was investigated. Wild strains of the mushroom were derived from natural habitats of Poland. The cultivation substrate was inoculated with two different isolates of T. aggressivum f. europaeum Th2. It was found that infections of the substrate with these isolates resulted in a very serious decrease in mushroom yield. The examined mushroom strains showed different reactions to the infections with Trichoderma isolates.

Open access

Krzysztof Sobieralski, Marek Siwulski, Iwona Sas-Golak, Jerzy Mańkowski and Teresa Kotlińska

Mycelium growth and yield of wild strains of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) Quel. cultivated on waste materials from the textile industry

The objective of the experiment was to compare mycelium growth and the yield of wild strains of Pleurotus ostreatus derived from natural sites and of a cultivated HK35 strain. Mycelium growth was investigated on substrates prepared from the sawdust of deciduous trees, wheat and rye straw as well as by-products from the textile industry: flax and hemp shives. Irrespective of the applied substrate, the cultivated HK35 strain was characterised by the fastest growth, whereas amongst the examined wild strains, mycelia designated as U18/5, S12/3 and B17/4 were found to grow best. Substrates prepared from wheat and rye straw and flax shives turned out to be the best for mycelium growth of the tested strains of P. ostreatus. The yield of oyster mushroom depended on the type of applied substrate. Higher yields were recorded on substrates from flax shives and a mixture of wheat straw and hemp shives than on wheat straw. The cultivated HK35 strain and the wild S12/3 strain gave the highest yields irrespective of the kind of substrate.