A reliability analysis of wind turbine systems applies to chosen localizations inPoland was inspected. The average availability, capacity factor and energy efficiency of thelarge wind turbine generator have been analyzed. It is noticed that if a failure ratedecreases by modernizing assemblies by removing chosen subassemblies andreconstructing others, an average lifetime of the wind turbine enlarge noticeably.Moreover, it is possible to find, both poor and excellent wind potential on areas classifiedas not preferable for a wind industry.
Krzysztof Pytel, Krzysztof Andrzejewski, Natalia Golnik and Jakub Osko
Concept of a BNCT line with in-pool fission converter at MARIA reactor in Swierk
BNCT facility in the Institute of Atomic Energy in Otwock-Swierk is under construction at the horizontal channel H2 of the research reactor MARIA. Measurements of the neutron energy spectrum performed at the front of the H2 experimental channel, have shown that flux of epithermal neutrons (above 10 keV) at the BNCT irradiation port was below 109 n cm-2 s-1 i.e. it was too low to be directly used for the BNCT treatment. Therefore, a fission converter will be placed between the reactor core and the periphery of the graphite reflector of MARIA reactor. The uranium converter will be powered by the densely packed EK-10 fuel elements with 10% enrichment. Preliminary calculations have shown that the total neutron flux in the converter will be about 1013 n cm-2 s-1 and flux of epithermal neutrons at the entrance to the filter/moderator of the beam will be about 2·1013 n cm-2 s-1.
Janusz Jaroszewicz, Zuzanna Marcinkowska and Krzysztof Pytel
The main objective of 235U irradiation is to obtain the 99mTc isotope, which is widely used in the domain of medical diagnostics. The decisive factor determining its availability, despite its short lifetime, is a reaction of radioactive decay of 99Mo into 99mTc. One of the possible sources of molybdenum can be achieved in course of the 235U fission reaction. The paper presents activities and the calculation results obtained upon the feasibility study on irradiation of 235U targets for production of 99Mo in the MARIA research reactor. Neutronic calculations and analyses were performed to estimate the fission products activity for uranium plates irradiated in the reactor. Results of dummy targets irradiation as well as irradiation uranium plates have been presented. The new technology obtaining 99Mo is based on irradiation of high-enriched uranium plates in standard reactor fuel channel and calculation of the current fission power generation. Measurements of temperatures and the coolant flow in the molybdenum installation carried out in reactor SAREMA system give online information about the current fission power generated in uranium targets. The corrective factors were taken into account as the heat generation from gamma radiation from neighbouring fuel elements as well as heat exchange between channels and the reactor pool. The factors were determined by calibration measurements conducted with aluminium mock-up of uranium plates. Calculations of fuel channel by means of REBUS code with fine mesh structure and libraries calculated by means of WIMS-ANL code were performed.
Aleksandra Luks, Krzysztof Pytel, Mikołaj Tarchalski, Nikołaj Uzunow and Tomasz Krok
Results of numerical calculations of heat exchange in a nuclear heating detector for nuclear reactors are presented in this paper. The gamma radiation is generated in nuclear reactor during fission and radiative capture reactions as well as radioactive decay of its products. A single-cell calorimeter has been designed for application in the MARIA research reactor in the National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ) in Świerk near Warsaw, Poland, and can also be used in the Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR), which is under construction in the research centre in Cadarache, France. It consists of a cylindrical sample, which is surrounded by a gas layer, contained in a cylindrical housing. Additional calculations had to be performed before its insertion into the reactor. Within this analysis, modern computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods have been used for assessing important parameters, for example, mean surface temperature, mean volume temperature, and maximum sample (calorimeter core) temperature. Results of an experiment performed at a dedicated out-of-pile calibration bench and results of numerical modelling validation are also included in this paper.