Search Results

1 - 5 of 5 items

  • Author: Krzysztof Pakuła x
Clear All Modify Search


The objective of the paper was to determine the quantity of lead and its potential and actual risks to the environment in gley-muck soil and mucky soil situated on the margins of peatmoors in the headstreams of the Liwiec River, based on the sequential analysis of metals and organic carbon.

The sequential extraction was carried out and the following operational fractions of metal were extracted: soluble in water (H2O); exchangeable (1M KCl); complex metal bound to humic substances (0.1M Na4P2O7); metals with stronger bonds to humic substances (0.1M NaOH); metals with stronger bonds to the organic and mineral solid soil phases (4M HNO3); and residual (aqua regia). The solutions were tested for the content of carbon (on a CHN-TCD autoanalyser) and lead (ICP-AES).

It was found that the organic matter in the tested soil samples showed a substantial degree of transformation with a predominance of mineralisation over humification. A higher level of lead accumulation was detected in the gley-muck soil. In both types of soil its content was assessed as natural. The accumulation of organic matter, the acidity and the content of phosphorus, sulphur and iron have a significant positive impact on the accumulation of lead in the examined types of soil. It was found that the highest concentration of lead was detected in the fractions strongly bound to the organic and mineral solid soil phases and in the complex compounds with humic substances, which indicates the potential for migration of metal outside the levels of organic matter accumulation. Less than 2% of the total lead content is present in most bioavailable fractions. More lead in the complex compounds with humic substances was found in the fraction of fulvic acids and, for other humic substances, in the fraction of humic acids.


The content of vanadium in exchangeable (F1), reducible (F2), oxidisable (F3) and residual fractions (F4) separated by BCR sequential extraction procedure and their distribution in 11 arable profiles of Eutric Cambisols, Haplic Luvisols and Stagnic Luvisols located on the Siedlce upland was evaluated. In these soils, the varied natural, not contaminated levels of total vanadium content were determined. Chemical analyses revealed that mean contents of vanadium in separated fractions, independently of type of investigated soils, can be arranged in the following decreasing series: F4 > F2 > F3 > F1. The highest amounts of this element in F1 (1.7%) and F4 (83.3%) fractions – in Stagnic Luvisols, and F2 (13.0%) and F3 (7.0%) fraction – in Eutric Cambisols were determined. The highest vanadium percentage share in the F1, F2 and F3 fractions was measured in the humus horizon (Ap) and in the F4 – in the enrichment horizons (B) and parent material horizons (Ck). A statistical analysis revealed the significant impact of selected soil properties (pH, Fe, Al and Mn compounds, CEC, Corg, clay fraction ø < 0.002 mm) on vanadium fractionation in investigated soils.


Pedological studies were carried out in the upper course of the Liviec River involving laboratory analyses of three profiles of hemic muck organic soil. The objective was to evaluate the basic properties (pH, crude ash content and carbon and nitrogen content) and to determine the speciation of carbon and nitrogen based on the sequential extraction with a neutral reagent (0.25M KCl) and two-stage acid hydrolysis at different concentrations of hydrogen ions (0.25M H2SO4 and 2.5M H2SO4).

The muck horizons, in relation to the peat horizons, had a higher content of ash and a lower concentration of carbon and lower carbontonitrogen ratios. The reduction of acidity in the examined soil had a significant impact on a higher proportion of mineral nitrogen forms. The moorshing process caused by desiccation of the examined soil contributed to an increase in the proportion of soluble organic matter forms (extracted with 0.25M KCl) and easily hydrolysing organic forms (extracted with hydrolysis in 0.25M H2SO4).


The goal of the research was to determine the resources and speciation (forms of occurrence) of phosphorus in organic soils of drained fens of the Wysoczyzna Siedlecka. Two profiles of muck soils were generated from different peats. Basic physical and chemical properties of the soils and the quantity, resources and fractions of phosphorus in the soil were determined.

The majority of the total resource of soil phosphorus was accumulated in the muck horizons of the analysed soils. The total content of phosphorus materially correlated with characteristically variable parameters in the moorshification process (voids free bulk density of the content of organic matter, C/N ratio and C/P ratio). Additionally, a material positive correlation of the content of phosphorus with the content of iron, manganese and aluminium was observed.

The moorshification process of the analysed soils entails the qualitative transformation of phosphorus compounds, mainly involving an increase in the share of more labile and easily available forms, forms released in reduction conditions and forms combined with metallic oxides, apatite, carbonate and labile organic forms.


The aim of the research was to evaluate the accumulation level of copper, zinc and nickel in forest mushrooms – Bay Bolete (Xerocomus badius), Saffron Milk Cap (Lactarius deliciosus), Rough-Stemmed Bolete (Leccinum scabrum), Slippery Jack (Suillus luteus) and Parasol Mushroom (Macrolepiota procera). The analysed mushrooms were obtained from growth forests located in the Masovian Voivodeship in the following counties: Siedlce, Sokołów, Łosice and Łuków. Total content of metals was determined using the method of atomic emission spectroscopy with inductively coupled plasma, after the earlier mineralisation of materials ‘by dry combustion’ in a muffle furnace at the temperature of 450°C, and after melting of ash in a 10% solution of HCl. In the soil samples taken from the places where the tested mushrooms occur, pH in 1 mol KCl·dm-3 and total content of copper, zinc and nickel were determined by the ICP-AES method after earlier mineralization in mixture of concentration HCl and HNO3 (3:1) in a microwave system. Test results were statistically analysed with the use of software STATISTICA 12 PL (STATSOFT, TULSA, USA). The analysed mushrooms had diverse content of the determined metals. The highest total average content of copper and zinc was present in Bay Bolete: 34.83 mg ∙ kg-1d.m. for Cu and 155.50 mg ∙ kg-1d.m. for Zn, and the highest average content of nickel was contained in Rough-Stemmed Bolete – 2.98 mg ∙ kg-1d.m.. The lowest average content of copper and zinc was determined in Rough-Stemmed Bolete: 11.98 mg ∙ kg-1d.m. for Cu and 91.90 mg ∙ kg-1d.m. for Zn, and lowest total average content of nickel was present in Bay Bolete – 1.05 mg ∙ kg-1d.m.

No excessive accumulation of examined heavy metals was stated in the analysed mushrooms species.