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  • Author: Krzysztof Nowacki x
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Safety culture is one of the most important elements of the organization's culture. Its role is particularly important in production plants, where employees are more often exposed to threats related to the working environment. The safety culture is strongly associated with the organizational level of the enterprise, which is largely influenced by the implemented management systems. The article presents the results of the evaluation of work safety culture in production plants with different functioning management systems, including the so-called turquoise organization. A relationship between the organizational level of the plant and the culture of occupational safety was stated.


Problems related to work safety have been accompanying humanity since the dawn of time. In times before the Industrial Revolution, human and animal muscle strength was used to work, and “safe work” solutions were developed and introduced individually by the user or supervising the work. Only a change in the way work was done due to the industrial revolution, the introduction of new energy sources, the transformation of manufactories into factories and the birth of the working class brought about greater, concrete changes. It was at that time that various machines and devices began to be introduced into the workplace, which on the one hand improved work and on the other hand created more and more potentially dangerous situations. Security was started holistically and institutionally. With the transformation and return of capitalism, the subject of real work safety returned. Health and safety was to be not only a fashionable slogan, but a value that was supposed to guarantee profit – in accordance with the principle that accidents reduce productivity. It was also connected with the process of adapting Polish law in the field of health and safety to the law of the European Union (EU), which resulted from Poland’s pursuit of EU membership. Moreover, an important factor initiating these changes was the interest of enterprises in quality management systems compliant with the ISO 9000 series and environmental management systems compliant with the ISO 14000 series, and related attempts to adapt the system management concept to the area of occupational health and safety, resulting in PN-N standards 18000 series. This publication analyzes the new standard PN-ISO 45001:2018 – “Occupational health and safety management systems – Requirements with guidance for use” comparing it with the standard PN-N 18001:2004 – “Occupational health and safety management. Requirements”.


Underestimating the duration of the production process is one of the basic factors determining the occurrence of delays in the duration of individual operations included in the production process. Occurrence of underestimation of production time brings many negative effects, which include, among others: underestimation of the company’s production capacity, accumulation of intermediate stocks, impeded planning of the production process (scheduling of the production process) and increase of production costs. The problem of erroneous estimation of the duration of the production process is most often found in production plants specializing in serial or mass production, implemented in a parallel or series-parallel system. The basic causes that underestimate the duration of the production process include errors in production scheduling, incorrect determination of durations of individual operations carried out as part of the analyzed production process, complexity of production operations and employment structure. The occurrence of delays in the production process can also be affected by accident events that generate underestimation and costs for the enterprise (including social and economic costs). In many cases, many algorithms are used to reduce underestimation and optimization and scheduling of the entire production process. The publication presents an analysis of the production process in which the duration of the production process is underestimated, taking into account the employment structure in the manufacturing company. The analyzes allow to determine the level of underestimation of operations of the production process depending on the form of employment (steel workers – employed under a contract of employment in the production plant, and temporary workers employed by temporary work agencies), identification of the reasons for the underestimation of individual production positions and the length of their time occurrence.


It is the duty of every employer to provide its employees with safe, hygienic and ergonomic working conditions. Available information suggests that working conditions in Poland improve each year, thanks to the ever-growing security culture prevailing in Polish enterprises. In spite of everything, there is still a problem of hazards in the workplace, and special attention should be paid to acoustic threats - vibrations and audible noise. Although entities operating on the market offering comprehensive services to reduce the exposure of employees to vibroacoustic hazards, there is still a need to develop new methods to protect the health of employees. Excessive exposure to vibrations and noise is associated with negative health effects that are exposed to, among others, employees involved in the mechanical processing of steel structures. Employees also experience the impact of local and general vibrations. Local vibrations can be relatively easily eliminated using anti-vibration gloves, while the reduction of general vibrations is often an unresolved problem for employees and employers. The publication presents the results of research on the development of the method of damping mechanical vibrations generated during grinding steel constructions. The research included several stages, among others: selection and preparation of the research material, design and construction of the test stand, measurements of vibration acceleration and industrial verification of the obtained results.


The publication presents the results of research on the statistically significant impact of the number of layers on vibration damping properties of vibroacoustic mats. The research was carried out on the author’s research stand. The research was carried out on sandwich systems made of polyurethane foam. The impact force of the analyzed variables was determined on the basis of constructed multiple regression models, the so-called multifactor models and determination of the standardized value β. The research was carried out using the PQStat software. In the models being built, the significance level was p < 0.05.

Three statistically significant linear multivariate models for one-third frequencies were constructed:

• 0-20000 Hz – a model for the entire frequency spectrum analysed during the tests,

• 0-400 Hz – a model for frequencies generating construction vibrations that may affect the worker as general vibrations,

• 50-20000 Hz – a model for frequencies that generate construction vibrations that can cause auditory sensations (noise).

It was found: positive correlation of the number of layers in vibration damping systems with a third octave frequency of up to 400 Hz; negative correlation of the number of layers in vibration damping systems with a third octave frequency of 50 to 20000 Hz.


The improvement of production processes is currently one of the key elements of the company's competitiveness. In the pursuit of profit, the rationality of streamlined processes is not always taken into account, i.e. that both process needs and these of employees should be considered. Caring of the comfort of work, of adjusting the workplace to the employee is the main goal of ergonomic activity. On the level of implementation of ergonomic demands depends not only the quality and modernity of the products, but also the ergonomics of the workstation and the production process, forming the basis for better quality and more efficient work. The Improvement of the quality of the ergonomic workplace is possible on the basis of a properly conducted assessment, using a variety of tools. This article presents the evaluation and ergonomic analysis of the work process at four production workplaces, and then indicates the directions of changes. The analysis included elements of physical effort: energy expenditure, static load and traffic monotype. Traditional tools were used, such as OWAS, REBA, and also the use of quality assessment tools (Ishikawa diagram, Pareto-Lorenzo diagram) was proposed in order to suggest solutions to improve the ergonomic quality of the workstations under analysis.