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Krzysztof Naus

Abstract

This paper presents a dynamic hyperboloidal mapping model aimed at building image of electronic navigational chart which constitutes an equivalent to that obtained from a hypercatadioptric camera system. In the 1st part, space and three reference frames located in it are defined. These are: the observer frame and horizontal topocentric frame considered secondary (both connected with water-surface platform), and the geocentric frame, primary one. The 2nd part provides description of a way of interconnection between the observer frame and horizontal topocentric one as well as of determination of their location in relation to the geocentric reference frame, depending on course and position of water-surface platform. In the final part is presented a model of panoramic image mapping in the observer reference frame and principles of generating ENC image by using dynamic hyperboloidal mapping. Finally, conclusions indicating possible applications of the developed model are presented.

Open access

Krzysztof Naus and Mariusz Wąż

Accuracy in fixing ship's positions by camera survey of bearings

The paper presents the results of research on the possibilities of fixing ship position coordinates based on results of surveying bearings on navigational marks with the use of the CCD camera. Accuracy of the determination of ship position coordinates, expressed in terms of the mean error, was assumed to be the basic criterion of this estimation.

The first part of the paper describes the method of the determination of the resolution and the mean error of the angle measurement, taken with a camera, and also the method of the determination of the mean error of position coordinates when two or more bearings were measured. There have been defined three software applications assigned for the development of navigational sea charts with accuracy areas mapped on.

The second part contains the results of studying accuracy in fixing ship position coordinates, carried out in the Gulf of Gdansk, with the use of bearings taken obtained with the Rolleiflex and Sony cameras. The results are presented in a form of diagrams of the mean error of angle measurement, also in the form of navigational charts with accuracy fields mapped on.

In the final part, basing on results obtained, the applicability of CCD cameras in automation of coastal navigation performance process is discussed.

Open access

Krzysztof Naus and Dariusz Szulc

Abstract

The Paper presents the optical method of fixing the off-shore objects positions from the land. The method is based on application of two reference points, having the geographical coordinates defined. The first point was situated high on the sea shore, where also the camera was installed. The second point was intended for use to determine the topocentric horizon plane and it was situated at the water-level.

The first section of the Paper contains the definition of space and disposed therein reference systems: connected with the Earth, water-level and the camera system.

The second section of the Paper provides a description of the survey system model and the principles of the Charge Coupled Device - CCD array pixel’s coordinates (plate coordinates) transformation into the geographic coordinates located on the water-level.

In the final section there are presented the general rules of using the worked out method in the optical system.

Open access

Andrzej Felski, Krzysztof Naus and Mariusz Wąż

Abstract

Performing any measurement on watercraft is connected with many additional difficulties caused by the sea-environment. The most important is the problem of spatial stabilization of measurement systems, which are usually fastened to craft body. As soon as usually these measurement are executed during the move of the craft additional question is the accuracy of execution the planed trajectory.

This is a problem for all investigators, especially when system use spatially configured beams of any antennas or other sensors, regardless is it receiving or transmitting one.

Different aspects of these question are the subject of research activity of Institute of Navigation and Maritime Hydrography of Polish Naval Academy. In this paper the review of works executed in last years are presented.

Open access

Krzysztof Naus and Andrzej Angel

Abstract

The article presents the possibility of using unmanned aerial vehicle to perform selected photogrammetric studies. The first part shows the mathematical basis of aerotriangulation based on a series of images. Next, a photogrammetric system consisting of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) equipped with a camera and specialized software for recording and processing images was presented. The main part shows the stages of the photogrammetric processing from the images i.e. mission plan of the incursion, creation of a thick cloud of points and a three-dimensional model. It also shows the analysis of the quality of the developed orthophotomap and a numerical model of the surface area, including photopoints by comparing them to orthographic images that are shared on Google. The final part contains generalized conclusions derived from the conducted research.

Open access

Krzysztof Naus and Mariusz Wąż

Abstract

The following article presents researches aimed at the evaluation of precision in determining a ship’s position through comparing a omnidirectional map image to a real vision image of the coast line. The first part establishes the thesis and preparatory forms in conducting the research. It also presents designed and built equipment including a research tool software. A system equipped with a spherical catadioptric camera that aids data collection on board ship designated to processing and analyzing data collected on board in connection with the spherical images of an electronic navigational chart with a software module. The second part explains procedures followed in conducting the research. The foreword note explains the procedure in data collection aboard a ship maneuvering in the port after which the algorithm for position placement and precise parametrical count was presented. The concluding part shows analyses of obtained research result. It bears a performance on the evaluation of precision at determining position. As a measure, an average error value and distance fluctuation of obtained position from referential position. As our conclusion, primary agents having rudimentary influence on the quality of correlating spherical map image to coastline visual image were characterized.

Open access

Krzysztof Naus and Piotr Szymak

Abstract

The article describes a study of problem of estimating the position coordinates of Autonomous Biomimetic Underwater Vehicle (ABUV) using two methods: dead reckoning (DR) and extended Kalman filter (EKF). In the first part of the paper, navigation system of ABUV is described and scientific problem with underwater positioning is formulated. The main part describes a way of estimating the position coordinates using DR and EKF and a numerical experiment involving motion of ABUV along the predetermined test distance. The final part of the paper contains a comparative statistical analysis of the results, carried out for assessing the accuracy of estimation of the position coordinates using DR and EKF methods. It presents the generalized conclusions from the research and the problems relating to the proper placement of the components of the system measuring distances.

Open access

Krzysztof Naus and Piotr Zwolan

Abstract

A research focused on development of numerical model of a sea area destined for a motion simulator of an Autonomous Biomimetic Underwater Vehicle (ABPP) is presented in the paper. There are purpose, construction and functionality of the ABPP motion simulator generally characterized in the introduction. The first part contains description of a method of creating the sea area model based on the data included in the Electronic Navigational Chart (ENC). A method of displaying the sea area model in the ABPP motion simulator, with a use of the Open GL graphic library, is described in the second part. Finally, there are conclusions drawn from the executed research given at the end.

Open access

Adam Weintrit, Piotr Kopacz, Andrzej Bąk, Janusz Uriasz and Krzysztof Naus

Abstract

In consequence of the adoption of the Manila Amendments to the STCW Convention and Code, the ECDIS model course would need to be reviewed and updated. Accordingly, three Polish matitime academies/universities present common position what necessary steps should be taken to revise and update existing IMO model course on Operational Use of ECDIS. Notes and comments relate to both the current existing IMO model course 1.27 on operational use of ECDIS and its new version proposed by the United States in the document STW 43/3/1. Comments and remarks to revised draft model course 1.27 cover the following parts and topics: Course Framework, Course Outline and Timetable, Detailed Teaching Syllabus, Instructor Manual, Evaluation and Assessment, and appendices for the ECDIS Instructor: Introduction of Operational use of ECDIS, ECDIS Performance Standard references, ECDIS Carriage Requirements, STCW Manila Amendments on ECDIS, Training scenario types and scenario success, and Integrated navigation training example.

Open access

Tomasz Praczyk, Piotr Szymak, Krzysztof Naus, Leszek Pietrukaniec and Stanisław Hożyń

Abstract

The paper presents the first part of the final report on all the experiments with biomimetic autono-mous underwater vehicle (BAUV) performed within the confines of the project entitled ‘Autonomous underwater vehicles with silent undulating propulsion for underwater ISR’, financed by Polish National Center of Research and Development. The report includes experiments in the swimming pool as well as in real conditions, that is, both in a lake and in the sea. The tests presented in this part of the final report were focused on low-level control.