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Judit Lencse–Mucha, Bartosz Molik and Krzysztof Perkowski

Streszczenie

Wstęp: Zrozumienie specyfiki funkcjonowania osób z niepełnosprawnością intelektualną (NI) wydaje się konieczne do lepszego wykonywania przez nie różnorodnych ról społecznych, również działań w obszarze różnych form ruchowych. Nierozwiązany w badaniach naukowych pozostaje problem czy osoby z NI są w ogóle w stanie wykonać wysiłki krótkotrwałe o maksymalnej intensywności. Celem badań była ocena reakcji organizmu osób z niepełnosprawnością intelektualną na wysiłki krótkotrwałe o maksymalnej intensywności.

Materiał i metody: Uczestnikami badań było 16 osób z niepełnosprawnością intelektualną -10 mężczyzn oraz 6 kobiet. Badani byli uczestnikami warsztatów terapii zajęciowej, nieuprawiającymi sportu. Wszyscy uczestnicy zostali poddani testowi Wingate dwukrotnie, w odstępie jednego tygodnia. Oceniana była korelacja mocy maksymalnej (PP), relatywnej mocy maksymalnej (rPP), mocy średniej (MP), relatywnej mocy średniej (rMP) oraz współczynnika zmęczenia (FI) między wynikami testów. Dodatkowo porównano wyniki uzyskane w grupie kobiet i mężczyzn w 1 i 2 badaniu, a także w relacji do wcześniej przedstawianych wielkości referencyjnych dla osób pełnosprawnych.

Wyniki: Odnotowano istotne korelacje dla wszystkich badanych parametrów w grupie kobiet a także wyniki MP, rMP i PP w grupie mężczyzn. Nie odnotowano istotnych różnic między wynikami uzyskanymi w pierwszym i drugim badaniu, za wyjątkiem wskaźnika zmęczenia u kobiet.

Wnioski: Badania pilotażowe wskazały, iż 30-sekundowy test Wingate jest rzetelny i może być wykorzystywany w grupie mężczyzn i kobiet z niepełnosprawnością intelektualną.

Open access

Krzysztof Kaganek, Tadeusz Ambroży, Dariusz Mucha, Adam Jurczak, Agata Bornikowska, Andrzej Ostrowski, Renata Janiszewska and Teresa Mucha

Abstract

Introduction. Physical activity is critical to effective rehabilitation in people with disabilities and, consequently, is of high importance in their lives. However, participation of the disabled in physical activity, including tourism, is a much more complex issue than in the case in able-bodied individuals. Material and methods. This paper aims to fill the gap and familiarise the reader with barriers faced by the disabled who engage in tourism. The study group consisted of randomly selected 460 participants with certificates specifying the degree of their disability. The group included 55 (12%) individuals with visual impairments, 203 (44.1%) individuals with hearing impairments, and 202 (43.9%) individuals with locomotor system disabilities. Results. The data derived from interviews made with people with physical dysfunctions, designed with a view to achieving the aims of the study, were used to develop logistic regression models. Conclusions. On average, the greatest and smallest numbers of barriers were reported by individuals with severe disabilities and those who had large families, respectively. Younger disabled people most often complained about the equipment barriers to participation in tourism. Older respondents were mostly challenged with social barriers. Of all the determinants analysed in the study, the perception of barriers to participation in tourism most often depended on the subjects’ degree of disability.

Open access

Krzysztof Jóźwiakowski, Zbigniew Mucha, Agnieszka Generowicz, Stanisław Baran, Jolanta Bielińska and Włodzimierz Wójcik

Abstract

This paper presents the use of multi-criteria analysis as a tool that helps choosing an adequate technology for a household wastewater treatment plant. In the process of selection the criteria of sustainable development were taken into account. Five municipal mechanical-biological treatment plants were chosen for the comparative multi-criteria analysis. Different treatment technologies, such as sand filter, activated sludge, trickling filter, a hybrid system - activated sludge/trickling filter and a hybrid constructed wetland system VF-HF type (vertical and horizontal fl ow) were taken into account. The plants’ capacities were 1 m3∙d-1 (PE=8) and they all meet the environmental regulations. Additionally, a solution with a drainage system was included into the analysis. On the basis of multi-criteria analysis it was found that the preferred wastewater treatment technologies, consistent with the principles of sustainable development, were a sand filter and a hybrid constructed wetland type VF-HF. A drainage system was chosen as the best solution due to the economic criteria, however, taking into consideration the primary (ecological) criterion, employment of such systems on a larger scale disagree with the principles of sustainable development. It was found that activated sludge is the least favourable technology. The analysis showed that this technology is not compatible with the principles of sustainable development, due to a lack of proper technological stability and low reliability.

Open access

Krzysztof Krauze, Tadeusz Skowronek and Kamil Mucha

Abstract

Problems related with abrasive wear of tangential-rotary picks during cutting process and its limitations, have been discussed in the present study. Essential for the parameters of cutting process geometrical, kinematic and material parameters of tangential-rotary picks and types of their wear, have been discussed. Testing procedure in aspect of the wear of tangential-rotary picks and their durability estimation, has been described. Manners of the abrasion of pick body and pick edge of the tangential-rotary picks, have been determined. Particular attention was paid to procedure of hard facing of the pick operational part and its influence onto mining process. Results of examination of tangential-rotary picks with hard facing layer on operational part near insert made of abrasion sintered carbide are also cited.

Open access

Roman Aleksiewicz, Krzysztof Kostro, Marek Kostrzewski, Beata Lisiecka, Marcin Bojarski and Paweł Adam Mucha

Abstract

The aim of the study was the evaluation of changes in the percentage profile of CD4+, CD8+, and CD25+ T lymphocytes, and their predictive value with respect to the course of experimental skin burns and early necrectomy in pigs. Thirty Large White Landrace pigs of both genders, weighing 50 kg (±2 kg), were used. Burns to their skin were performed with the use of a computer-controlled heating plate, applied to the animal’s body and heated to 2000°C, using 2.5 kg pressure for 10 s. It produced a burn of 30% (±2%) of body surface with a range of damage between II b° and III°. In animals of each experimental group fascial necrectomy was performed, according to the testing module. Blood from experimental and non-treated control animals was collected from the external jugular vein before the beginning of the experiment (hour 0) and at 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84, 96, 108, 120, 132, 144, 156, 168, and 180 h of the experiment. An immune response profile was evaluated using flow cytometry analysis of the level and expression dynamics of CD4+, CD8+, and CD25+ particles on the surface of T lymphocytes. The study demonstrated that experimentally-induced burns in pigs caused cell-mediated immune response reflected in the changes in the percentage of CD4+, CD8+, and CD25+ T lymphocytes, and that early necrectomy in burnt pigs acted in a protective manner for the organism, based on the immunological index values. The study also proved that the dynamics of cell-mediated immunological response intensification determined on the basis of the percentage of CD4+, CD8+, and CD25+ T lymphocytes is conditioned by the size of the burnt surface and the time of necrectomy procedure.

Open access

Grzegorz Prokopowicz, Bartosz Molik, Katarzyna Prokopowicz, Tomasz Chamera, Anna Ogonowska-Słodownik, Judit Lencse-Mucha, Natalia Morgulec-Adamowicz, Andrzej Kosmol and Krzysztof Perkowski

Abstract

Introduction: Paralympic sailing was introduced at the Atlanta 1996 Paralympic Games. Since then it has been developing rapidly and an increasing number of individuals in Poland and abroad regularly take part in sports competitions. Currently, disabled athletes can compete in three classes: Sonar, 2.4mR and Skud 18. The review of the Polish and foreign literature does not give a clear indication of the motives for participation in Paralympic sailing.

Material and methods: The study was carried out on 52 regatta sailors with physical disabilities. Group I consisted of 20 sailors from the Polish National Team. Group II consisted of 32 sailors from 10 European countries. The study was conducted during the National Team camp in Górki Zachodnie and during the European Championships in Switzerland. The Participation Reasons Scale (PRS – developed by Brasile and Hedrick in 1991) was used in the study.

Results: Excitement of the activity and an opportunity to improve abilities were rated highest by the disabled sailors from the Polish National Team. In the group of sailors from other European countries, the motives rated highest included the chance to be with friends and challenges related to sailing.

Conclusions: Sports-related aspects and emotions are the main factors motivating disabled persons to practise sailing. If we take into account the needs indicated by the sailors in planning sports activities for people with disabilities, it may contribute to faster development of Paralympic sailing in our country.

Open access

Grzegorz Prokopowicz, Bartosz Molik, Katarzyna Prokopowicz, Anna Ogonowska-Słodownik, Judit Lencse-Mucha, Morgulec-Adamowicz, Andrzej Kosmol, Krzysztof Perkowski, Tomasz Chamera and Tomasz Grzywacz

Abstract

Introduction. A review of Polish and international literature does not give a clear indication of the level of anaerobic capacity that sailors with disabilities demonstrate with regard to their functional capacities. This study sought to determine differences in functional capacity levels between sailors from three medical and functional groups. Material and methods. The research was carried out during a sports camp at the National Sailing Centre in Górki Zachodnie in 2014. Eighteen males with locomotor disabilities were included in the study. The athletes were members of the National Team of Sailors with Disabilities of the Polish Yachting Association. The sportsmen competed in the Skud 18 and 2.4mR Paralympic classes. A 30-second Wingate test for upper limbs was employed in the study. Results. Significant differences in mean power (MP) values were noted between the groups under investigation. The group of wheelchair sailors with improper core stability (A) and the group of wheelchair sailors with proper core stability (B) had significantly lower scores than the group of study participants who were able to move freely, that is to walk (C). Conclusions. The study revealed that a 30-second anaerobic capacity test performed on an arm ergometer differentiated disabled sailors from selected groups in terms of mean power. Research on anaerobic capacity may be used to verify the current classification in Paralympic sailing and will make it possible to differentiate present competition categories.

Open access

Marek Krawczyk, Michał Grąt, Krzysztof Barski, Joanna Ligocka, Arkadiusz Antczak, Oskar Kornasiewicz, Michał Skalski, Waldemar Patkowski, Paweł Nyckowski, Krzysztof Zieniewicz, Ireneusz Grzelak, Jacek Pawlak, Abdulsalam Alsharabi, Tadeusz Wróblewski, Rafał Paluszkiewicz, Bogusław Najnigier, Krzysztof Dudek, Piotr Remiszewski, Piotr Smoter, Mariusz Grodzicki, Michał Korba, Marcin Kotulski, Bartosz Cieślak, Piotr Kalinowski, Piotr Gierej, Mariusz Frączek, Łukasz Rdzanek, Rafał Stankiewicz, Konrad Kobryń, Łukasz Nazarewski, Dorota Leonowicz, Magdalena Urban-Lechowicz, Anna Skwarek, Dorota Giercuszkiewicz, Agata Paczkowska, Jolanta Piwowarska, Remigiusz Gelo, Paweł Andruszkiewicz, Anna Brudkowska, Renata Andrzejewska, Grzegorz Niewiński, Beata Kilińska, Aleksandra Zarzycka, Robert Nowak, Cezary Kosiński, Teresa Korta, Urszula Ołdakowska-Jedynak, Joanna Sańko-Resmer, Bartosz Foroncewicz, Jacek Ziółkowski, Krzysztof Mucha, Grzegorz Senatorski, Leszek Pączek, Andrzej Habior, Robert Lechowicz, Sławomir Polański, Elżbieta Leowska, Ryszard Pacho, Małgorzata Andrzejewska, Olgierd Rowiński, Sławomir Kozieł, Jerzy Żurakowski, Bogna Ziarkiewicz-Wróblewska, Barbara Górnicka, Piotr Hevelke, Bogdan Michałowicz, Andrzej Karwowski and Jerzy Szczerbań

1000 Liver Transplantations at the Department of General, Transplant and Liver Surgery, Medical University of Warsaw - Analysis of Indications and Results

The aim of the study was to analyze indications and results of the first one thousand liver transplantations at Chair and Clinic of General, Transplantation and Liver Surgery, Medical University of Warsaw.

Material and methods. Data from 1000 transplantations (944 patients) performed at Chair and Clinic of General, Transplantation and Liver Surgery between 1994 and 2011 were analyzed retrospectively. These included 943 first transplantations and 55 retransplantations and 2 re-retransplantations. Frequency of particular indications for first transplantation and retransplantations was established. Perioperative mortality was defined as death within 30 days after the transplantation. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to estimate 5-year patient and graft survival.

Results. The most common indications for first transplantation included: liver failure caused by hepatitis C infection (27.8%) and hepatitis B infection (18%) and alcoholic liver disease (17.7%). Early (< 6 months) and late (> 6 months) retransplantations were dominated by hepatic artery thrombosis (54.3%) and recurrence of the underlying disease (45%). Perioperative mortality rate was 8.9% for first transplantations and 34.5% for retransplantations. Five-year patient and graft survival rate was 74.3% and 71%, respectively, after first transplantations and 54.7% and 52.9%, respectively, after retransplantations.

Conclusions. Development of liver transplantation program provided more than 1000 transplantations and excellent long-term results. Liver failure caused by hepatitis C and B infections remains the most common cause of liver transplantation and structure of other indications is consistent with European data.