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  • Author: Krzysztof Mucha x
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Introduction. Physical activity is critical to effective rehabilitation in people with disabilities and, consequently, is of high importance in their lives. However, participation of the disabled in physical activity, including tourism, is a much more complex issue than in the case in able-bodied individuals. Material and methods. This paper aims to fill the gap and familiarise the reader with barriers faced by the disabled who engage in tourism. The study group consisted of randomly selected 460 participants with certificates specifying the degree of their disability. The group included 55 (12%) individuals with visual impairments, 203 (44.1%) individuals with hearing impairments, and 202 (43.9%) individuals with locomotor system disabilities. Results. The data derived from interviews made with people with physical dysfunctions, designed with a view to achieving the aims of the study, were used to develop logistic regression models. Conclusions. On average, the greatest and smallest numbers of barriers were reported by individuals with severe disabilities and those who had large families, respectively. Younger disabled people most often complained about the equipment barriers to participation in tourism. Older respondents were mostly challenged with social barriers. Of all the determinants analysed in the study, the perception of barriers to participation in tourism most often depended on the subjects’ degree of disability.


This paper presents the use of multi-criteria analysis as a tool that helps choosing an adequate technology for a household wastewater treatment plant. In the process of selection the criteria of sustainable development were taken into account. Five municipal mechanical-biological treatment plants were chosen for the comparative multi-criteria analysis. Different treatment technologies, such as sand filter, activated sludge, trickling filter, a hybrid system - activated sludge/trickling filter and a hybrid constructed wetland system VF-HF type (vertical and horizontal fl ow) were taken into account. The plants’ capacities were 1 m3∙d-1 (PE=8) and they all meet the environmental regulations. Additionally, a solution with a drainage system was included into the analysis. On the basis of multi-criteria analysis it was found that the preferred wastewater treatment technologies, consistent with the principles of sustainable development, were a sand filter and a hybrid constructed wetland type VF-HF. A drainage system was chosen as the best solution due to the economic criteria, however, taking into consideration the primary (ecological) criterion, employment of such systems on a larger scale disagree with the principles of sustainable development. It was found that activated sludge is the least favourable technology. The analysis showed that this technology is not compatible with the principles of sustainable development, due to a lack of proper technological stability and low reliability.


The aim of the study was the evaluation of changes in the percentage profile of CD4+, CD8+, and CD25+ T lymphocytes, and their predictive value with respect to the course of experimental skin burns and early necrectomy in pigs. Thirty Large White Landrace pigs of both genders, weighing 50 kg (±2 kg), were used. Burns to their skin were performed with the use of a computer-controlled heating plate, applied to the animal’s body and heated to 2000°C, using 2.5 kg pressure for 10 s. It produced a burn of 30% (±2%) of body surface with a range of damage between II b° and III°. In animals of each experimental group fascial necrectomy was performed, according to the testing module. Blood from experimental and non-treated control animals was collected from the external jugular vein before the beginning of the experiment (hour 0) and at 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84, 96, 108, 120, 132, 144, 156, 168, and 180 h of the experiment. An immune response profile was evaluated using flow cytometry analysis of the level and expression dynamics of CD4+, CD8+, and CD25+ particles on the surface of T lymphocytes. The study demonstrated that experimentally-induced burns in pigs caused cell-mediated immune response reflected in the changes in the percentage of CD4+, CD8+, and CD25+ T lymphocytes, and that early necrectomy in burnt pigs acted in a protective manner for the organism, based on the immunological index values. The study also proved that the dynamics of cell-mediated immunological response intensification determined on the basis of the percentage of CD4+, CD8+, and CD25+ T lymphocytes is conditioned by the size of the burnt surface and the time of necrectomy procedure.


Introduction. A review of Polish and international literature does not give a clear indication of the level of anaerobic capacity that sailors with disabilities demonstrate with regard to their functional capacities. This study sought to determine differences in functional capacity levels between sailors from three medical and functional groups. Material and methods. The research was carried out during a sports camp at the National Sailing Centre in Górki Zachodnie in 2014. Eighteen males with locomotor disabilities were included in the study. The athletes were members of the National Team of Sailors with Disabilities of the Polish Yachting Association. The sportsmen competed in the Skud 18 and 2.4mR Paralympic classes. A 30-second Wingate test for upper limbs was employed in the study. Results. Significant differences in mean power (MP) values were noted between the groups under investigation. The group of wheelchair sailors with improper core stability (A) and the group of wheelchair sailors with proper core stability (B) had significantly lower scores than the group of study participants who were able to move freely, that is to walk (C). Conclusions. The study revealed that a 30-second anaerobic capacity test performed on an arm ergometer differentiated disabled sailors from selected groups in terms of mean power. Research on anaerobic capacity may be used to verify the current classification in Paralympic sailing and will make it possible to differentiate present competition categories.



Lipoprotein X (LpX) is an abnormal lipoprotein fraction, which can be detected in patients with severe hypercholesterolaemia and cholestatic liver disease. LpX is composed largely of phospholipid and free cholesterol, with small amounts of triglyceride, cholesteryl ester and protein. There are no widely available methods for direct measurement of LpX in routine laboratory practice. We present the heterogeneity of clinical and laboratory manifestations of the presence of LpX, a phenomenon which hinders LpX detection.


The study was conducted on a 26-year-old female after liver transplantation (LTx) with severely elevated total cholesterol (TC) of 38 mmol/L and increased cholestatic liver enzymes. TC, free cholesterol (FC), cholesteryl esters (CE), triglycerides, phospholipids, HDL-C, LDL-C, and apolipoproteins AI and B were measured. TC/apoB and FC:CE ratios were calculated. Lipoprotein electrophoresis was performed using a commercially available kit and laboratory-prepared agarose gel.


Commercially available electrophoresis failed to demonstrate the presence of LpX. Laboratory-prepared gel clearly revealed the presence of lipoproteins with γ mobility, characteristic of LpX. The TC/apoB ratio was elevated and the CE level was reduced, confirming the presence of LpX. Regular lipoprotein apheresis was applied as the method of choice in LpX disease and a bridge to reLTx due to chronic liver insufficiency.


The detection of LpX is crucial as it may influence the method of treatment. As routinely available biochemical laboratory tests do not always indicate the presence of LpX, in severe hypercholesterolaemia with cholestasis, any discrepancy between electrophoresis and biochemical tests should raise suspicions of LpX disease.