Radiographic examination of the distal radius and ulna of dogs showed changes in metaphyseal areas of both bones characteristic of hypertrophic osteodystrophy (HOD). The serum of the patients showed increased activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALKP) and elevated concentrations of Ca and P. Oral application of vitamin C and injection of sodium salt of hyaluronic acid in the bolus caused a reduction in swelling, disappearance of pain symptoms around the joints, and increased appetite. Radiographic examinations performed on the 60th d of treatment revealed the withdrawal of the changes characteristic for HOD. The chosen biochemical parameters tested during the treatment showed a decrease in comparison to the values before treatment, namely: ALKP by 27.7%, Ca by 22.2%, P by 12.3%, and Mg by 2.4%. Clinical condition of the animals was defined as good or very good. The use of hyaluronic acid and vitamin C in the treatment of HOD in the first stage of the disease proved to be highly successful, resulting in the inhibition of the disease course.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of β-endorphin on oxygen activity of polimorphonuclear neutrophils and to investigate the total antioxidant status of blood serum in rats subjected to chronic treatment with methimazole. The study was carried out on 15 male Wistar rats weighing 270-290 g, divided into two groups. The animals from experimental group were administered a 0.05% drinking water solution of methimazole. The oxygen activity of peripheral blood neutrophils was examined using a modified RBA test. The extra-receptor effect of β-endorphin on the respiratory burst of neutrophils was evaluated. The incubation of neutrophils in the presence of phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) in the control group caused a nearly threefold increase in the oxygen activity of the cells compared to the control. Slightly higher values were obtained after addition of β-endorphin at the concentration of 10-6. Lower concentrations of this opioid (10-8 and 10-10) also stimulated oxygen activity but at a lower level than PMA. Naloxone did not affect the oxygen activity only when using β-endorphin in the concentration of 10-6. Naloxone and β-endorphin in the concentrations of 10-8 and 10-10 evoked a linear decrease in the oxygen activity of neutrophils, below the values obtained for PMA. The obtained results suggest that methimazole significantly modulates the generation of reactive oxygen species under the influence of β-endorphin, which stimulates the respiratory burst via the receptor pathway and inhibits it via the extra-cellular pathway. Methimazole also stimulates the anti-free radical defence.
The paper assesses the treatment of cutaneous fungal infection in young beef cattle caused by Trichophyton verrucosum using orally administered zinc sulphate for 28 d at 2 g per animal per day and subcutaneous application of 2.5 mg/kg levamisole administered three times every 7 d. The study was conducted on animals at the age of 110 to 122 d, which were divided into two experimental groups: group I (animals suffering from ringworm with low levels of zinc in serum) and group II (animals suffering from ringworm with normal levels of zinc in serum). The remaining animals (control group) were divided into three subgroups: K (clinically healthy animals, which had normal serum levels of zinc), KI (animals infected with ringworm and showing a reduced level of zinc), and KII (animals suffering from ringworm with normal serum zinc levels). During the study the following parameters were investigated: clinical signs of fungal infection, zinc content in serum, percentage of phagocytic cells, and phagocytic index. The symptoms of the disease were observed only in group II on day 56. In group I, an increase in the percentage of phagocytic cells was observed, as compared to the original values, on days 7, 21, and 56 and a fall in this parameter was noted on days 14 and 28. In group II, there was a decrease on day 14 and an increase in comparison to the original values, followed by a gradual fall till day 56 of the experiment. In group I, phagocytic index remained on a stable level till day 56 and in group II until day 28, and subsequently began to increase gradually. It was found that oral supplementation of zinc sulphate combined with nonspecific immunostimulation may be applied in fighting skin fungal infection in cattle, and that zinc and levamisole may exhibit synergism affecting the evolution of nonspecific immunity.
Polioencephalomalacia as a result of sulphur excess is a growing problem in cattle and sheep, mainly in young, growing animals. It is common in different regions of the world. The disease develops favoured by certain conditions such as sustained provision of feed and water with high sulphur content, use of dietary supplements containing sulphur, and a habitat with high hydrogen sulphide concentration. Pathogenesis of the disease is complex, but very important are oxidative-antioxidative imbalance, dysfunction of vessels, and secondary cerebral cortex ischaemia as a result of direct and/or indirect action of sulphur metabolites, namely hydrogen sulphide, sulphides, and sulphites. Clinical signs and changes in the cerebral cortex in the form of degenerative necrotic lesions are similar to those observed in polioencephalomalacia caused by vitamin B1 deficiency, and lead and salt intoxication. Highly increased sulphur content (more than 0.3-0.4 of dry matter) in the diet is the basis for differential diagnosis, as well the high concentration of hydrogen sulphide in gas and sulphides in rumen fluid. In prophylaxis and treatment the most important measure is to limit sulphur intake and in acute cases to neutralise low pH in rumen and administer vitamin B1 injections.
The clinical form of natural zearalenone intoxication was observed in sheep that were kept indoors and fed a constant diet of feed concentrates containing high concentrations of zearalenone and its metabolite α-zearalenol. The clinical form of the disease was not noted in the control group, consisting of sheep that were kept on a pasture from spring to late autumn; only in the winter they were fed wheat pellets, in which the zearalenone concentration was determined to be the lowest among all used feed concentrates. During the course of natural zearalenone intoxication, metabolism of arachidonic acid increased, mainly due to enzymes of the cyclooxygenase group, which are responsible for the generation of prostaglandin F2α and thromboxane B2, and an increase in their concentration. Increased production of F2α and B2 was closely correlated with the serum level of SAA, an indicator of the intensity of the inflammatory reaction. This indicates that both compounds participated in the development of inflammatory reactions in the terminal end of the digestive tract that accompanied zearalenone intoxication in sheep. The imbalances noted between the eicosanoid classes investigated in this study were fundamentally responsible for the development of clinical symptoms in sick sheep that showed symptoms of partial or total prolapse of the anus and rectum and prolapse of the large intestine, which were the direct cause of the animals death.
Introduction: The aim of the study was to assess the usefulness of duplex Doppler to objectify swine renal arterial flow in physiological conditions. The pig kidney was selected for its morphological similarities to the human and for the results therefore offering data to wider research. Material and Methods: Six White Large x Landrace sows, of 48.5–53 kg b.w. were used. Vascular flow parameters were acquired with a convex probe USG device with a duplex Doppler function using pulsed waves (frequency range of 5–7.5 MHz). Segmental kidney arterial flow was measured. Results: The RI values were within the 0.57 (min) to 0.6 (max) range, ̄xRI was 0.58 (±0.014), and the SD2 value was 0.0002. The PI index values ranged from 1.21 (min) to 1.3 (max), and ̄xRI was 1.24 (±0.035). The value of SD2 was 0.00123. In the S/D index, the results fell between 2.2 (min) and 2.49 (max), with ̄xS/D of 2.29 (±0.117). The value of variance SD2 was 0.0139. A double analysis of correlation between indices showed this to be almost certain and highly positive as confirmed by high correlation coefficients: r RI & PI 0.857, rhoRI & PI 0.739, rRI & S/D 0.930, rhoRI & S/D 0.941, rPI & S/D 0.913, and rhoPI & S/D 0.754. The segmental kidney arterial flow spectrum evinced falls in PSV and PSV/LDV ratio, also noticed in the filling of the spectral window, comparing the renal to an interlobar artery. Conclusion: Swine were selected because of renal anatomical and haemodynamic similarity to humans. The most relevant values and indices approximated those in humans. The study anaesthetic protocol had a minor influence on the average RI, PI, and S/D indices.
The study aimed to observe TNF-α serum concentration as well as changes in respiration rate, body temperature, and pulse rate in burn victims during 84 h post burn.
Material and Methods
A total of 30 healthy pigs were divided into two groups: A, the test group and N, the control group. The experimental group suffered burns to 30% of the body surface, and after infliction of the burns both groups were closely monitored.
The biggest increase in TNF-α serum concentration in the test subjects occurred around the 6th h of the study, and the second biggest increase took place between 12th and 36th h. In the 36th h, TNF-α was 2.5 times more concentrated in serum in the test group than in the control group. In the test group, the biggest increase in respiration rate occurred up to the 6th h post burn, on average up to 29/min. In the 12th h post burn, the mean pulse rate in the test group was 133/min and dropped to the lowest value in the 72nd h of the experiment. A gradual increase in body temperature up to 41.72°C was observed up to the 30th h post burn and decreased to a significant value of 40.74°C by the 84th h of the study.
In a period of a pronounced rise in TNF-α serum concentration, this parameter, pulse rate, and respiration rate are highly correlated and are also influenced by multiple inflammation forming factors.
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of thymus factor X (TFX-Jelfa) treatment in hypoestrogenic female rats for the purpose of decreasing skin impairments. Ovariectomised rats were used as a model. The histopathological analysis of the skin after TFX-Jelfa treatment demonstrated that the epidermis was thicker and more desquamated, without deep wrinkles or hypersecretion in comparison to the skin of animals only castrated and not treated with TFX-Jelfa. Collagen and elastic fibres were arranged more uniformly in the dermis and there were numerous fibroblasts, hair follicles, and small vessels. Ultrastructural analysis showed keratinocytes without degenerative changes and the proliferation of lymphatic and dendritic cells in the skin. The results indicate that thymus extracts can have beneficial effects on skin aging, which is often accompanied by hormonal perturbances.
Introduction: Thyroid hormones affect protein turnover, and in the case of hypothyroidism a decrease in protein synthesis and reduced release of certain amino acids from skeletal muscles are observed. Changes in the amino acid system of skeletal muscles may be responsible for the occurrence of muscle disorders. Material and Methods: The study measured the content of selected amino acids in the gastrocnemius muscle of Wistar rats during experimental hypothyroidism induced by oral administration of methimazole at a concentration of 0.05% in drinking water for 90 d. The rats were divided into four groups: E1 (n = 6) - experimental males, E2 (n = 6) - experimental females, C1 (n = 6) - control males, and C2 (n = 6) control females. Results: A statistically significant reduction occurred in leucine, isoleucine, and 1-methylhistidine levels in males, and 1-methylhistidine in females, in comparison to the control groups. Conclusion: The hypothyroidism-induced changes in amino acid content may be responsible for the occurrence of skeletal muscle function disorders.
Introduction: Thyroid hormones play a major role in the regulation of testicular maturation and growth and in the control of Sertoli and Leydig cell functions in adulthood. When naturally occurring, hypothyroidism causes male hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and Sertoli cell function disorders, but when iatrogenic and methimazole-induced its influence on the pituitary-testicular axis function with respect to Sertoli cells is poorly known.
Material and Methods: Male adult Wistar rats (n = 14) were divided into two groups: E – taking methimazole orally for 60 days, and C – control animals. After 60 d, the concentrations in serum of testosterone, follicle-stimulating and luteinising hormones, and inhibins A and B were measured. Testicles were examined morphologically: the apoptotic Sertoli cell percentage (ASC%) and number of these cells functional per tubular mm2 (FSCN/Tmm2) were calculated.
Results: In group E, inhibin A was higher while inhibin B was lower than in group C. ASC% was higher and FSCN/Tmm2 lower in group E than in group C.
Conclusion: A specific modulation of Sertoli cell function in the course of methimazole-induced hypothyroidism leads to a simultaneous concentration increase in inhibin A and decrease in B. Inhibin A might share responsibility for pituitary-testicular axis dysfunction and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in this model of hypothyroidism.