Image Based Analysis of Complex Microstructures of Engineering Materials
The paper presents various methods for quantitative description of material structures. The main focus is on direct methods of description based on image analysis. In particular, techniques for the estimation of the size, shape and spatial distribution of structural elements observed by different microscopic techniques are described. The application of these methods for the characterization of the structures of engineering materials is demonstrated on a stainless steel used in petrochemical installations. It is shown that the methods applied are useful for the assessment of service degradation of materials.
Polyurethanes used in the endoprosthesis of joints
The aim of the studies presented in this paper was the selection of the polyurethanes synthesized from different substrates in order to obtain i) ceramic - biodegradable polymer composite and ii) polyurethane resistant to abrasive wear. The polyurethanes were obtained from the crystalline prepolymers extended by water, because it may have a beneficial effect on the toxicity of the material. The properties of PUs were investigated using infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy. In all the tested polyurethanes the peak from the reactive -NCO groups was not observed, which indicates that all the substrates are fully reacted. Such polyurethanes are characterized by interesting properties with the perspective use as components of ceramic-polymer joints endoprosthesis. The designed endoprosthesis should fulfill at least three functions: load bearing function (ceramic core), fastening and stabilizing endoprosthesis to the bone (composite ceramics - biodegradable polymer) and tribologic function allowing mating with parts of the prosthesis (polyurethane layer resistant to abrasive wear).