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  • Author: Krzysztof Kozak x
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Breast cancer is the most common cancer among Polish women [1], thus, the problem of surgical treatment of breasts, especially with regard to conserving and/or reconstruction surgery, is extensively discussed. Currently, in Poland, efforts are made to increase the number of oncologic and reconstructive breast centers which offer specialized treatment of this cancer, the so-called ‘Breast Units’ [1]. This paper analyzes methods of reconstructions, discusses the techniques used in particular types of surgeries and additionally informs the reader of the oncological aspects of the procedures. Based on literature, statistical data of breast reconstructions from Poland and the world are presented. Moreover, complications and psychological aspects of mammary gland surgery are dealt with, and the aesthetic effects of breast reconstructions are discussed. To support of our findings, we also present selected clinical cases from the oncological and reconstructive point of view.


Clozapine is the drug of choice for drug-resistant schizophrenia, but despite its use, 30-40% patients fail to achieve satisfactory therapeutic effects. In such situations, augmentation attempts are made by both pharmacological and non-pharmacological methods. To date, most of the work has been devoted to pharmacological strategies, much less to augemantation of clozapine with electroconvulsive therapy (C+ECT), transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) or transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS).

Aim: The aim of the work is to present biological, non-pharmacological augmentation treatment methods with clozapine.

Material and methods: A review of the literature on non-pharmacological augmentation treatment methods with clozapine was made. PubMed database was searched using key words: drug-resistant schizophrenia, clozapine, ECT, transcranial magnetic stimulation, transcranial electrical stimulation and time descriptors: 1980-2017.

Results: Most studies on the possibility of increasing the efficacy of clozapine was devoted to combination therapy with clozapine + electric treatments. They have shown improved efficacy when using these two methods simultaneously from 37.5 to 100%. The only randomized trial so far has also confirmed the effectiveness of this procedure. Despite the described side effects of tachycardia or prolonged seizures, most studies indicate the safety and efficacy of combined use of clozapine and electroconvulsive therapy. Transcranial magnetic stimulation also appears to be a safe method in patients treated with clozapine. However, further research is needed before ECT can be included in standard TRS treatment algorithms. The data for combining transcranial electrical stimulation with clozapine, come only from descriptions of cases and need to be confirmed in controlled studies.

Conclusions: The results of studies on the possibility of increasing the effectiveness of clozapine using biological non-pharmacological treatment methods indicate a potentially beneficial effect of this type of methods in breaking the super-resistance in schizophrenia. Combination of clozapine and ECT can be considered as the most recommended strategy among these treatment methods.


Radon exhalation from ground is a process dependent on the emanation and migration of radon through ambient air. Most studies on radon exhalation from soil were performed regarding the influence of meteorological and soil parameters. As radon exhalation rate can be affected by the internal properties of the sample, it may also be influenced by the exhalation chamber geometry such as volume-to-area (V/S) ratio or other construction parameters. The measurements of radon exhalation from soil were made using different constructions of accumulation chamber and two types of radon monitors: RAD7 (Durridge) and AlphaGUARD PQ2000PRO (Genitron). The measurements were performed on one site in two locations and approximately at the same time. The first tests did not show the correlations of exhalation rate values and the chamber’s construction parameters and their geometrical dimensions. However, when examining the results, it seems that there are still too many factors that might have affected the process of radon exhalation. The future experiments are planned to be conducted in controlled laboratory conditions.


Macrophages and cytokines are important in the control of inflammation and regulation of the immune response. However, they can also contribute to immunopathology in the host after viral infection and the regulatory network can be subverted by infectious agents, including viruses, some of which produce cytokine analogues or have mechanisms that inhibit cytokine function. African swine fever virus (ASFV) encodes a number of proteins which modulate cytokine and chemokine induction, host transcription factor activation, stress responses, and apoptosis. The aim of this review is to elucidate the mechanisms of immune responses to ASFV in different subpopulations of porcine macrophages. A transcriptional immune response in different resident tissue macrophages following ASFV infection was presented in many publications. ASFV-susceptible porcine macrophages can be of several origins, such as peripheral blood, lungs, bone marrow, etc. blood monocytes, blood macrophages, and lung macrophages have demonstrated a modulation of phenotype. Monocyte-derived macrophages could express surface markers not found on their monocyte precursors. Moreover, they can undergo further differentiation after infection and during inflammation. When viruses infect such cells, immunological activity can be seriously impaired or modified.



Repeated incursions of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5 subtype of Gs/GD lineage pose a serious threat to poultry worldwide. We provide a detailed analysis of the spatio-temporal spread and genetic characteristics of HPAIV Gs/GD H5N8 from the 2019/20 epidemic in Poland.

Material and methods

Samples from poultry and free-living birds were tested by real-time RT-PCR. Whole genome sequences from 24 (out of 35) outbreaks were generated and genetic relatedness was established. The clinical status of birds and possible pathways of spread were analysed based on the information provided by veterinary inspections combined with the results of phylogenetic studies.


Between 31 December 2019 and 31 March 2020, 35 outbreaks in commercial and backyard poultry holdings and 1 case in a wild bird were confirmed in nine provinces of Poland. Most of the outbreaks were detected in meat turkeys and ducks. All characterised viruses were closely related and belonged to a previously unrecognised genotype of HPAIV H5N8 clade Wild birds and human activity were identified as the major modes of HPAIV spread.


The unprecedentedly late introduction of the HPAI virus urges for re-evaluation of current risk assessments. Continuous vigilance, strengthening biosecurity and intensifying surveillance in wild birds are needed to better manage the risk of HPAI occurrence in the future.


Most people spend the majority of their time in indoor environments where the level of harmful pollutants is often significantly higher than outdoors. Radon (222Rn) and its decay products are the example of radioactive pollutants. These radioisotopes are the main source of ionizing radiation in non-industrial buildings. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of air-conditioning system on radon and its progeny concentrations and thus on the effective dose. The measurements were carried out in the auditorium at the Environmental Engineering Faculty (Lublin University of Technology, Poland). Measurements of radon and its progeny (in attached and unattached fractions) as well as measurements of the following indoor air parameters were performed in two air-conditioning (AC) operation modes: AC ON and AC ON/OFF. The air supply rate and air recirculation were taken into consideration. The separation of radon progeny into attached and unattached fractions allowed for determining, respectively, the dose conversion factor (DCF) and the inhalation dose for teachers and students in the auditorium. A considerable increase of the mean radon progeny concentrations from 1.2 Bq/m3 to 5.0 Bq/m3 was observed in the AC ON/OFF mode compared to the AC ON mode. This also resulted in the increase of the inhalation dose from 0.005 mSv/y to 0.016 mSv/y (for 200 h/year). Furthermore, the change of the air recirculation rate from 0% to 80% resulted in a decrease of the mean radon concentration from 30 Bq/m3 to 12 Bq/m3 and the reduction of the mean radon progeny concentration from 1.4 Bq/m3 to 0.8 Bq/m3. This resulted in the reduction of the inhalation dose from 0.006 mSv/y to 0.003 mSv/y.


The paper presents the outcomes of the uncertainty investigation of a long-term forest cover change analysis in the Polish Carpathians (nearly 20,000 km2) and Swiss Alps (nearly 10,000 km2) based on topographic maps. Following Leyk et al. (2005) all possible uncertainties are grouped into three domains - production-oriented, transformation- oriented and application-oriented. We show typical examples for each uncertainty domain, encountered during the forest cover change analysis and discuss consequences for change detection. Finally, a proposal for reliability assessment is presented.


The paper describes a microbiological method for the detection of antibacterial substances in feedingstuffs. The method allowed detection of the main antibiotic groups, including tetracyclines. In 2013-2014, a total of 171 feed samples were analysed to determine antibacterial substances. Among the analysed samples 84 (49.1%) were suspected to contain tetracyclines. Out of the 84 feeds analysed using chromatography, 28 (33.3%) contained undeclared tetracyclines, which were identified at concentrations ranging from 0.32 mg kg-1 to 48.98 mg kg-1.


Radon concentration was measured in 11 thermal spas in Visegrad countries (Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia). The results showed that in 84% of spas radon activity concentration is less than 400 Bq·m−3. However, areas with radon activity concentration exceeding 1000 Bq·m−3 were found in the Czech Republic and Slovakia as well. Preliminary analyses indicated that the highest radon activities in spas were found in places with thermal pools. Radon concentration in waters used in spas ranged from 0.5 Bq/l to 384 Bq/l. The influence of radon activity concentration in water on radon activity in the air inside the spa was observed. It was found to increase indoor radon with increasing radon in the waters. Correlation with indoor radon and radon in water was more significant for baths and less significant for pool waters. In the cases filling of the bath from water taps, significantly contribute to the increased radon was observed in the pool and bath areas of the spa.


At the beginning of the year 2016, the representatives of the Polish Radon Centre decided to organize proficiency tests (PTs) for measurements of radon gas and radon decay products in the air, involving radon monitors and laboratory passive techniques. The Silesian Centre for Environmental Radioactivity of the Central Mining Institute (GIG), Katowice, became responsible for the organization of the PT exercises. The main reason to choose that location was the radon chamber in GIG with a volume of 17 m3, the biggest one in Poland. Accordingly, 13 participants from Poland plus one participant from Germany expressed their interest. The participants were invited to inform the organizers about what types of monitors and methods they would like to check during the tests. On this basis, the GIG team prepared the proposal for the schedule of exercises, such as the required level(s) of radon concentrations, the number and periods of tests, proposed potential alpha energy concentration (PAEC) levels and also the overall period of PT. The PT activity was performed between 6th and 17th June 2016. After assessment of the results, the agreement between radon monitors and other measurement methods was confirmed. In the case of PAEC monitors and methods of measurements, the results of PT exercises were consistent and confirmed the accuracy of the calibration procedures used by the participants. The results of the PAEC PTs will be published elsewhere; in this paper, only the results of radon intercomparison are described.