The paper assesses the treatment of cutaneous fungal infection in young beef cattle caused by Trichophyton verrucosum using orally administered zinc sulphate for 28 d at 2 g per animal per day and subcutaneous application of 2.5 mg/kg levamisole administered three times every 7 d. The study was conducted on animals at the age of 110 to 122 d, which were divided into two experimental groups: group I (animals suffering from ringworm with low levels of zinc in serum) and group II (animals suffering from ringworm with normal levels of zinc in serum). The remaining animals (control group) were divided into three subgroups: K (clinically healthy animals, which had normal serum levels of zinc), KI (animals infected with ringworm and showing a reduced level of zinc), and KII (animals suffering from ringworm with normal serum zinc levels). During the study the following parameters were investigated: clinical signs of fungal infection, zinc content in serum, percentage of phagocytic cells, and phagocytic index. The symptoms of the disease were observed only in group II on day 56. In group I, an increase in the percentage of phagocytic cells was observed, as compared to the original values, on days 7, 21, and 56 and a fall in this parameter was noted on days 14 and 28. In group II, there was a decrease on day 14 and an increase in comparison to the original values, followed by a gradual fall till day 56 of the experiment. In group I, phagocytic index remained on a stable level till day 56 and in group II until day 28, and subsequently began to increase gradually. It was found that oral supplementation of zinc sulphate combined with nonspecific immunostimulation may be applied in fighting skin fungal infection in cattle, and that zinc and levamisole may exhibit synergism affecting the evolution of nonspecific immunity.
Expression of CD4, CD8, and CD25 surface markers on T lymphocytes and levels of IFNγ, IL-10, and TNF-α in colostrum and milk were determined in sows vaccinated against Trueperella pyogenes in the final stage of pregnancy. The autovaccine, prepared from Trueperella pyogenes, administered twice to pregnant sows six and three weeks before the anticipated delivery significantly increased the percentages of TCD4+, TCD8+, and TCD25+ as well as levels of IFNγ, TNF-α, and IL-10 in colostrum and milk. The enhanced immune potential of colostrum effectively protected the piglets against T. pyogenes infections during weaning and thus reduced the economic losses on the particular farm concerned, where T. pyogenes infections occur endemically. Knowledge of the profile of cellular and humoral immune response in colostrum and milk of vaccinated sows will enable the design of a T. pyogenes infection prophylactic programme for suckling pigs and weaners, which are most susceptible to infections.
The Forkhead genes (transcription complex Fox) play many important roles in the maintenance and determination of biological processes underlying carbon-based life. The expression of Fox genes occurring as a result of reciprocal interactions at the transcriptional level influences the correct function of the immune system as regards the context of general activity of immunological parameters, as well as exposure to aetiological agents. In the case of model organisms and species, in which the knowledge about genomic sequences is incomplete, understanding the above-mentioned transcriptional complex is still insufficient, despite the existence of numerous scientific publications. It is worth noting that Fox genes exist in amphioxus Branchiostoma lanceolatum and in the majority of species they were not characterised. Among many coding sequences included in the transcriptional complex Forkhead, Foxp3, Foxn1, and Foxj1 genes are of a great importance from immunological point of view, being partially jointly responsible for determining features related to productivity. The paper provides general characterisation of selected Fox genes and is an introduction to the presentation of new data, which can be applied at the level of biological differentiation of the populations of domestic and wild animals.
Vector-borne infection constitutes a significant health issue in dogs worldwide. Recent reports point to an increasing number of canine vector-borne disease cases in European countries, including Poland. Canine babesiosis caused by various Babesia species is a protozoal tick-borne disease with worldwide distribution and significant veterinary importance. The development and application of molecular methods have increased our knowledge about canine babesiosis, its prevalence, and clinical and pathological aspects of the infection. Parasitologists and veterinary surgeons need an accurate description of the species responsible for canine babesiosis to improve diagnostic and therapeutic methods, as well as predictions for the course of the disease. Therefore, we decided to summarise recent knowledge concerning Babesia species and B. canis.
Radiographic examination of the distal radius and ulna of dogs showed changes in metaphyseal areas of both bones characteristic of hypertrophic osteodystrophy (HOD). The serum of the patients showed increased activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALKP) and elevated concentrations of Ca and P. Oral application of vitamin C and injection of sodium salt of hyaluronic acid in the bolus caused a reduction in swelling, disappearance of pain symptoms around the joints, and increased appetite. Radiographic examinations performed on the 60th d of treatment revealed the withdrawal of the changes characteristic for HOD. The chosen biochemical parameters tested during the treatment showed a decrease in comparison to the values before treatment, namely: ALKP by 27.7%, Ca by 22.2%, P by 12.3%, and Mg by 2.4%. Clinical condition of the animals was defined as good or very good. The use of hyaluronic acid and vitamin C in the treatment of HOD in the first stage of the disease proved to be highly successful, resulting in the inhibition of the disease course.
The progressive growth and spread of tumour cells in the form of metastases requires an interaction of healthy host cells, such as endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and other cells of mesenchymal origin with immune cells taking part in innate and adaptive responses within the tumour lesion and entire body. The host cells interact with tumour cells to create a dynamic tumour microenvironment, in which healthy cells can both positively and negatively influence the growth and spread of the tumour. The balance of cellular homeostasis and the effect of substances they secrete on the tumour microenvironment determine whether the tumour has a tendency to grow or disappear, and whether the cells remain within the lesion or are capable of metastasis to other regions of the body. Intercellular interactions also determine the tumour’s susceptibility to radiation or other types of cancer treatment. They may also be a rational explanation for differences in treatment outcomes, in which some metastases regress and others progress in response to the same treatment method.
The aim of this study was to assess the impact of asymptomatic infections of mink with Aleutian mink disease virus (AMD on reproductive performance and the morphology of the internal organs. The study drew its subjects from two farms where the disease was endemic and included 450 clinically healthy female mink divided into three equal groups: two AMD positive groups and one AMD negative control group. The mink were subjected to clinical observations throughout the period of reproduction, and then for the first seven weeks after birth. Data collected during this period were evaluated using selected breeding and reproductive indices. All reproductive indices including conception rate, litter size, and litter weight at birth as well as neonatal mortality were substantially poorer. Histopathological examination revealed changes typical for AMD, particularly in the spleen, kidneys, liver, and lymph nodes. The results highlighted and proved the frequently underestimated extent of economic losses on farms where AMD is endemic yet the mink stock is apparently healthy.
The aim of this study was to characterise the genetic variability of the Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) circulating among mink farmed in Poland and to compare Polish isolates with AMDV variants available in the GenBank database. For this purpose PCR amplification and analysis of the 429 bp DNA fragment of the AMDV NS1 gene from 13 randomly selected AMDV infected mink was performed. A comparison showed that all tested amplicons were closely related to the sequence of the NS1 gene of AMDV and showed high (94%-97%) homology to virus variants from American mink (Neovison vison) isolated in Canada in 2007-2008. Eleven samples showing a high percentage (95%-97%) of sequence similarity together with three similar isolates originating from Canada formed one clade (monophyletic group). Two variants showing a lower percentage (about 94%- 95%) of sequence similarity to isolates from Canada formed a separate clade. Polish viruses can be subdivided into two main groups with a putative ancestor common to both Polish and three Canadian isolates. This result confirms the literature data indicating the occurrence of American mink in Eastern Europe (including Poland) from the 1950s when the animals were imported for breeding purposes. In conclusion, we provide for the first time a report on the genetic characteristics of the AMDV variants circulating in the Polish population of farmed mink and their relationship with previously known AMDV variants isolated and described abroad.
Deep crusty dermatophytosis was demonstrated in 10-week-old rabbits naturally and experimentally infected with T. mentagrophytes. Moreover, specific cell-mediated immune response in T. mentagrophytes-infected rabbits occurrd in two phases. During the presence of clinical symptoms of trichophytosis, slightly positive results of leukocyte migration inhibition factor (LMIF) assay were noted, whereas the highest values were observed during spontaneous regression of fungal lesions and complete recovery. The slightly positive LMIF values in rabbits with fungal lesions reflect the mechanism of cell-mediated immune response during T. mentagrophytes infection. On the other hand, the highest positive LMIF values during spontaneous recovery indicate that regression of fungal lesions is attributed to acquired specific cellular immunity. The findings also confirm that the used vaccine against trichophytosis quite strongly stimulates the cell-mediated immune mechanisms, which is confirmed by positive LMIF values in immunised rabbits.
There were two aims of this study. One was to evaluate the postpartum state of the reproductive system in cows based on ultrasonography, bacterial culture, and cytological examination of the uterus. The other was to determine whether postpartum endometritis affects the subsequent state of the endometrium, and, in consequence, selected reproductive parameters in cows. The study was conducted on 60 cows: the experimental group of 30 cows with endometritis, and 30 cows free of uterine inflammation (control). The percentage of leukocytes in both groups was similar only on day 5 of postpartum. In all subsequent tests (26, 40, 61 d postpartum), the percentage of leukocytes in the experimental group was statistically significantly higher than in the control (P < 0.001), both in samples collected with a brush and in lavage samples. Involution of the uterus in the experimental group was also slower (P < 0.001). The analysed reproductive parameters were markedly less favourable in the experimental group than in the control. The study showed that postpartum inflammation of the uterus can persist for a long time in the form of endometritis, causing substantial deterioration of reproductive parameters in cows. The authors suggest that cytological evaluation of the uterus, preferably using a brush, should be performed as soon as possible after parturition, even before day 21, up to which time puerperal metritis may still persist. Evaluation of the inflammatory process based on the number of leukocytes and the quality of endometrial cells is important.