Hiking Trails for Tourists in the "Chełmy" Landscape Park - Assessment of Their Route and Infrastructure Development
Introduction. The objective of the work was to assess the development of hiking trails for tourists and their infrastructure in the "Chełmy" Landscape Park in Lower Silesia. Material and methods. The analysis concerned a network of tourist trails whose coherence and shape were evaluated based on the indices derived from the graph theory. Also the correspondence between the names given to some trails with the tourist attractions accessible via such trails was assessed, and their number was compared to the length of the relevant trails. The analysis of the development of infrastructure for hiking tourists was conducted based on the results of local stocktaking and determination of tourist traffic density. Results. The obtained results show that the network of trails across the Park is quite well developed and coherent, despite the diversity of infrastructural development. The correspondence between the names of trails with their tourist attractions was confirmed with some reservations. Conclusions. Diverse trails in the studied area should be integrated into a coherent network by their similar development level, and in particular by introducing uniform marking standards. It would be also worth providing better access to some attractions for hiking tourists by introducing appropriate access routes.
The aim of the article is to assess the operation of Heritage Tram Lines in Wrocław in 2018 in terms of the attractiveness of the offer for tourists, uptake, the costs of its maintenance and profitability, to finally indicate some general conclusions on this urban tourism offer. The present moment is special as an increase in carriers (transport companies) operating the Lines from one to two has enabled various changes to be made. Based on data on the number of tickets being sold it is possible to assess that the Lines are most popular in July and August, however even then statistically less than half of the seating places are occupied. Trips with a guide are less frequented than rides without. As a consequence, in this article several suggestions are presented which may help the Lines become more popular: for example a longer period of operation (in a day and in a year), the introduction of new ticket types and additional attractions.
The aim of the article is to assess the role of degraded landscapes in tourism. The authors try to answer questions about the contexts in which such landscapes may be found in relation to those complex phenomena concerning the human need for travel, leisure, cognition and experience. They also pose questions about the physical and symbolic limits to tourism and recreation in degraded landscapes. The work is based on a literature review and observations on chosen degraded landscapes (mostly industrial and post-industrial) located at the Czech foreground of the Ore Mountains (Czech Krušné Hory, German Erzgebirge).
Currently, obtaining energy from renewable sources, as never before, it has become one of the most important areas, but at the same time challenges in human activities. This is the effect of many factors simultaneously, including because of the media trumpeted the greenhouse effect, the necessity of reducing CO2 emissions, shrinking natural resources, and thus the desire to protect their welfare including conservation (including natural resources) for future generations. The paper presents the results of preliminary numerical analyzes of work for vertical axis wind turbines equipped with air guides. The carried out analyzes indicate the potential possibility of using this type of construction in practice. The obtained power factor value is higher than in classic wind turbines with a vertical axis. The conducted analyzes also indicate the possibility of optimizing the proposed constructional solution in order to increase efficiency of obtaining energy from the wind.
Introduction: Dietary supplements are a good way to supplement the deficiency of certain micronutrients and organic components (therapeutic agents) in human body. They are most often available in concentrated form as tablets, capsules, powder or liquid.
Objective: To investigate morphological parameters and the pharmaceutical availability of coated tablets – dietary supplements – that contain selected pharmacopeial titrated dry plant extracts.
Methods: Testing of the effective time of the tablet surface erosion was performed in model acceptor fluids using pharmacopeial methods in static (Erweka apparatus) and dynamic (unlimited diffusion method) conditions. Furthermore, morphological parameters of tablets (the original shape of an ellipse) as well as their hardness were determined.
Results: The effective erosion time was determined by conductometric method using carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt (NaCMC) contained in the tablet. The content of gum arabic and NaCMC in the tablet testifies that the granulate was produced using the “wet granulation” technique which resulted in high hardness of original, esthetic, elliptical tablets and in prolonged disintegration time (erosion).
Conclusions: The used excipients: gum arabic and NaCMC for the production of the tested tablets containing selected dry plant extracts result in their high hardness. The tested dietary supplements are characterized by esthetic design, original shape, and prolonged disintegration time which affects the pharmaceutical availability.
In the paper, the measurement of the marine diesel engine crankshaft residual stresses is presented. The hole drilling strain gauge was chosen because of its simplicity and low cost. Moreover, deflection calculation was made for the load corresponding to its weight and the concentrated force in the chosen bearing conditions. Deflection of the journal and bending rigidity under the concentrated force was calculated as well. In that case, the crankshaft was supported in the neighbouring crank journals. The reduced stresses were calculated according to the Huber – Mises hypothesis. The residual stresses were measured in the marine diesel engine crankshaft type 12V38 after the finishing, with the hole-drilling method. It was found that the residual stresses reach the maximal value of 86 MPa, but for 50% of measuring points, the residual stresses did not exceed the value of 20 MPa. The squeezing stresses were found to be dominant. The measurement results provided important data for further consideration, especially for the correction of the bending deformation of the produced crankshaft.
The aim of this study was to scrutinise if the dietary addition of a low-pectin fibre preparation obtained from apple pomace, the by-product of apple concentrate processing, is able to favourably affect the gut metabolism, antioxidant status and blood bio-markers of the organism, as it takes place when apple fibre is present in the diet as an unprocessed ingredient. The nutritional experiment was performed on rats allocated to 2 groups of 10 animals each and fed for 2 weeks with either a control cellulose-containing diet or an experimental low-pectin apple fibre-containing diet. To induce metabolic disorders a diet rich in saturated fat and fructose was used in both diet-specific groups. The dietary apple fibre preparation (AFP) significantly reduced the activity of sucrase and maltase in the mucosa of the small intestine. In the caecal digesta, the dietary AFP significantly increased bacterial α-glucosidase and α-galactosidase activity, whereas bacterial β-glucuronidase activity was significantly reduced. Also, the content of short chain fatty acids in the caecal digesta was significantly increased after the AFP supplementation. In the blood serum, the dietary AFP significantly reduced the glucose concentration, and decreased the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol. In conclusion, the tested dietary AFP is still able to favourably affect the gut metabolism and can also ameliorate blood glucose concentration, which seems to be related to the inhibition of mucosal disaccharidase activities. However, the analysed preparation has no influence on the antioxidant status of the organism and may trigger adverse effects on cholesterol metabolism.
In two experiments on rats it was analyzed whether the lowering rate of postprandial glycaemia depends on the degree of polymerization of strawberry ellagitannins (ET). Two types of highly-concentrated polyphenolic extracts were used, one rich in monomeric ET (ETM; 94.9% polyphenols and 67% ETM in it), the second in dimeric ET (ETD; 95.9% polyphenols, and 78.0% ETD in it). The experiment 1 comprised three oral sugar tolerance tests, GTT (with glucose; to examine monosaccharide transport across epithelium), SuTT (with sucrose; to examine the activity of mucosal disaccharidase) and StTT (with starch; to examine the action of salivary alpha-amylase, and then of pancreatic amylase in the small intestine as well as all the aforementioned mechanisms), while in the experiment 2 the healthy and pre-diabetic rats were subjected to 1-h small intestine perfusion with fluids containing glucose or sucrose. Considering the shape of blood glucose concentration curve following GTT and SuTT, as well as changes in glycaemia and mucosal disaccharidases activity observed within and after small intestine perfusion, the ETM (vs. ETD) extract more positively mitigated sugar-induced post-prandial glycaemic load. Contrary to expectations, the effect of extracts on pre-diabetic rats was negligible. The extract ETD, in turn, potently mitigated starch-induced postprandial glycaemic load during test StTT. The results clearly showed that the separate mechanisms (glucose transport across the intestine, intestinal mucosal disaccharidases inhibition activity, pancreatic α-amylase inhibitory activity) leading to decreased postprandial glycaemia upon dietary administration of strawberry ellagitannins largely depended on their chemical structure, i.e. degree of polymerization.