Multiplier Effects in Local and Regional Development
The aim of the paper is to outline demand-driven multiplier mechanisms, the theory behind them, and applicable quantification methods (aggregate models and incremental methods). The authors discuss a number of key problems related to multiplier effects as fundamental mechanisms of local and regional development. The study of the magnitude, industry structure, spatial distribution, and key determinants of those effects can help understand growth mechanisms in local and regional economies and evaluate the advantages and disadvantages associated with new, e.g. foreign, investment. Furthermore, the results of earlier empirical studies of the magnitude, spatial distribution and determinants of multiplier effects are presented together with the outcomes of the authors' own study.
This paper aims to give an in–depth account of the regeneration of the site of the former Katowice coalmine, by far the largest regeneration venture financed by the public sector on a post-industrial site in Poland, and to capture the primary outcomes and effects of this prestige project. Contrary to a simplified interpretation of a ‘Polish Bilbao effect’, the authors argue that the Culture Zone follows a unique development model that was driven by a coincidence of such factors as the situation of a major (post-) industrial conurbation seeking a new identity, the availability of external funding, chance events (with the origins of some of them dating back to WW2), and pre-existing spatial factors. The study area has been diagnosed to include all the positive effects of flagship projects, as well as most of the weaknesses associated with such a type of regeneration. All in all, it is a successful undertaking given the external conditions under which it has been implemented.
There are debates in the research literature about the mechanisms responsible for the formation of local development trajectories. What is emphasised, as particularly scarce, are longitudinal studies which show how historical, social and institutional structures are reproduced and/or transformed into new paths of development in the case of industrial towns. This paper aims to capture the role of various social, cultural and institutional features that constitute localised capabilities, in the process of transition from an old to a new developmental path for older industrial towns. The authors use case studies of three medium-sized industrial centres in Poland: Dzierżoniów, Starachowice and Mielec, to illustrate how localised capabilities are shaped by the interplay of earlier economic activity and the characteristics of local firms, on the one hand, and the evolving social, cultural and institutional attributes of the particular town and its region on the other. As a result, industrial towns may differ significantly in their ability to absorb exogenous impulses, as well as their capacity to transform and recombine them into a new development pathway that is more resilient than the old one.
The aim of the paper is to identify the main factors and mechanisms behind the development of low-emission public transport vehicles in Polish cities. This innovation is primarily connected with growing environmental requirements for transport, with the EU environmental and transport policies being the key factors. However, strategies of local governments and municipal transport companies as well as the organization of urban transport - which differs significantly between cities - also play an important role. Three basic types of approach towards low-emission buses can be observed in Polish cities: tests of electric and hybrid vehicles, purchases of small quantities of buses in order to implement new solutions, and finally attempts to replace the majority or even the entire transport fleet with low-emission vehicles. It should be emphasised that an important element which affects the development of low emission public urban transport in Poland is the fact that the country has become one of the main bus producers in Europe - a fact which is a result of both large-scale foreign investments and the success of Polish manufacturers.