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Open access

Krzysztof Górski, Stanisław Kondracki, Anna Wysokińska and Maria Iwanina

Abstract

Introduction: Determination of sperm concentration and morphology in ejaculate is essential in evaluating fertility. Sperm shape and dimensions may depend on their concentration in ejaculate. The aim of the study was to evaluate the dependence of Hypor boar morphological and morphometric sperm characteristics on concentration in ejaculate.

Material and Methods: The study was conducted on 120 ejaculates from 12 Hypor boars. Depending on sperm concentration, they were put into three groups: low, medium, and high. Ejaculate sperm concentration was determined with the photometric method. Slides were prepared from semen samples which were evaluated for the morphology of spermatozoa. The preparations for morphological analyses were by the eosin-gentian staining method.

Results: As the sperm concentration in the ejaculate increased, the length, perimeter, and area of the sperm heads also did. In the ejaculates with higher sperm concentration the sperm heads were rounder. The ratios of head dimensions to tail length or total length were the highest in the sperm from ejaculates with the highest concentrations. The highest percentage of morphologically abnormal sperm was noted in ejaculates with low concentrations.

Conclusion: The dimensions and shape of sperm depend on the sperm concentration in the ejaculate. In ejaculates with the highest concentrations, the sperm have larger dimensions. Sperm concentration affects the frequency of morphological anomalies in the spermatozoa.

Open access

Krzysztof Górski, Stanisław Kondracki and Anna Wysokińska

Abstract

Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the dependence between ejaculate traits, sperm morphology, and ejaculate volume in Duroc boars.

Material and Methods: The analysis involved 121 ejaculates collected from 12 Duroc boars kept in three artificial insemination centres located in central Poland. Ejaculates were collected manually at one-month intervals, over a period of 10 months. At least 10 ejaculates were collected from each boar. The material was divided by ejaculate volume and each ejaculate was assigned to one of three volume groups: 160 mL and lower, 161–200 mL, and 201 mL and higher. The ejaculates were assessed to identify the basic physical traits and determine the incidence of morphological abnormalities in the spermatozoa, specifying major and minor abnormalities. Furthermore, the morphological structure indices for the spermatozoa were also calculated.

Results: In large-volume ejaculates, spermatozoa were more elongated in shape, their heads were more elongated and had the largest flagella. With an increase in the ejaculate volume, sperm concentration in the ejaculate decreased. Moreover, while the total number of sperm in the ejaculate increased, the number of insemination doses obtained from a single ejaculate were higher.

Conclusion: The volume of ejaculate has little impact on the occurrence of morphological abnormalities and the size of sperm cells. Ejaculate volume is important for the shape of the sperm cells.

Open access

Krzysztof Górski, Stanisław Kondracki, Karolina Strachocka and Anna Wysokińska

Abstract

Reproductive efficiency in pigs is largely dependent on the fertility of the boar. Boars used at insemination stations should produce a large amount of semen with high fertilization capacity. The sperm count influences the conception rate and the number of insemination doses produced. The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphological and morphometric characteristics of boars of the Hypor breed in relation to the total sperm count in the ejaculate. An analysis was performed of 120 ejaculates collected from 12 Hypor boars used at three insemination stations. The ejaculate sperm count was found to affect the morphometric characteristics of spermatozoa from boars. In the ejaculates with the lowest sperm count the spermatozoa heads were significantly shorter and narrower and had a smaller surface area. The sperm from ejaculates with the lowest sperm count had relatively small head dimensions in relation to the tail length and total sperm length. In the ejaculates with the most sperm cells, the proportion of spermatozoa with major defects was significantly greater than in the ejaculates from other groups. In the ejaculates with the lowest sperm count the frequency of sperm with progressive motility was significantly lower. The fewest insemination doses can be prepared from these ejaculates.

Open access

Krzysztof Górski and Leon Saba

Abstract

Studies were conducted on farm “A” located in east-central Poland to assess the mineral content in cows, taking into account individual links of the soil-feed-animal trophic chain. The mineral assessment included the determination of Na and K. Soil samples were taken once from the humus layer (that is at the depth of 0-15 cm) of pastures and arable fields in mid-growing season by means of a soil sampling stick. Feed samples were taken regularly when the feeds were included in rations (all year round), making sure the samples were representative. Sodium and potassium contents in soil and feeds were determined by the Atomic Absorption Spectrometry methods and in hair by the Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry method. There were two dates for hair sample collection: I (10-14 days prior to calving) and II (after the first month of lactation). The results showed that Na and K concentrations were sufficient to meet animal needs. The sodium level in cow’s hair fell within the physiological range. Also potassium concentration complied with the referential standards (2000 mg·kg-1 d.m.) and approximated 2040 mg·kg-1 d.m.

Open access

Romuald Górski, Krzysztof Sobieralski and Marek Siwulski

Abstract

Investigations concerning the effect of hemp oil on mortality of the foxglove aphid (Aulacorthum solani Kalt.) and the two spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) were conducted in the years 2014-2015. The tested essential oil was produced at the Institute of Natural Fibers and Medicinal Plants in Poznan. It was obtained by steam distillation of fresh panicles of Polish hemp cultivars, Beniko, Bialobrzeskie and Silesia, with low cannabinoid contents, including THC (max. 0.2% plant fresh matter). The effect of essential oil on the investigated pests was determined following the application of aqueous emulsion solution at 0.02, 0.05 and 0.1%. Mortality of agrophages was determined 24, 48 and 72 h after treatment. In this study a very high efficacy of the essential oil produced from hemp panicles was found in the reduction of population size of the foxglove aphid (A. solani). Already at 24 h after its application at a concentration of 0.1% pest mortality rate was 98.20%, while after 48 h it reached 100%. A significant, although much lesser effect of oil on the aphid population was recorded when applying it at 0.05%, with the mortality rate of the true bug after 72 h amounting to 57.33%. Essential oil also showed an effect on the two spotted spider mite (T. urticae). Following the oil application, irrespective of its concentration, a significant effect on mite mortality was observed. Its action was the strongest at its highest concentration, ie 0.1%, while mortality of the pest at 24, 48 and 72 h after treatment was 83.28, 95.83 and 98.72%, respectively.

Open access

Michał Górski, Tomasz Lekszycki, Krzysztof Buśko and Joanna Mazur-Różycka

Summary

Study aim: estimate reaction forces and muscle torque in lower limb joints during the Naeryo chagi technique in taekwondo.

Material and methods: the parameters of the Naeryo chagi kick were measured with a Vicon motion tracking system comprising ten MX T40S cameras, two reference cameras and four AMTI BP600900-2000 force plates. Additional measurements were performed using the BTS-4AP-2K force analysis system equipped with a WB-4AP punching bag. The acquired raw data were processed and synchronized using Matlab v.R2007a software. A computer simulation created on the basis of the adopted mathematical model was used to identify reaction forces and control moments.

Results: the highest joint loads occurred at the moment when the striking leg reversed its movement direction from rising to rapidly falling towards the target. The knee and ankle joints of the supporting leg were subject to greatest reaction forces and muscle torque.

Conclusions: it is recommended to follow an exercise routine aimed at strengthening and stabilizing the structures of motor system subject to the greatest load.

Open access

Anna Pastuszak, Michał Górski, Jan Gajewski and Krzysztof Buśko

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of a wide range of anthropometric parameters with BMD in normal-weight women: handball players and healthy untrained students. Thirteen former female handball players, (age 21.2±0.9 years, body mass 64.2±6.1 kg, training experience 6.7±2.4 years) and 51 randomly selected untrained students (age 20.6±1.2 years, body mass 58.1±6.8 kg), were examined. The anthropometric measurements included 16 variables. BMD was measured on the radius of the non-dominant hand at distal and proximal points with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), using a Norland pDEXA densitometer. Relationships between BMD and anthropometric variables were assessed in 64 normal-weight women (BMI≥18.5 and ≤ 24.99 kg/m2), by calculating Pearson’s linear correlation coefficient. We found a significant positive relationship between bone mass characteristics and biacromial breadth (0.30-0.53), calf (0.28-0.47) and arm (0.27-0.42) girth corrected, and lean body mass (LBM) (kg) (0.38-0.61) and (%) (0,27) in the group of normal-weight women. The student groups were significantly different (analysis of variance with Scheffé post hoc test, p<0.001) in BMD, bone mineral content (BMC) and Z-score at both measured points. The former handball players were also characterized by higher body mass and LBM (kg), as well as corrected body girths and biacromial breadth (p<0.001), compared to untrained students. The groups did not differ significantly in body height or total fat. The morphological profile of the female handball players is conducive to BMD. Skeletal characteristics and muscle tissue had a significant beneficial effect on bone mineral characteristics in young women with normal weight.

Open access

Alina Kałużewicz, Romuald Górski, Krzysztof Sobieralski, Marek Siwulski and Iwona Sas-Golak

Abstract

The aim of the research was to assess the influence of calcium chloride and calcium lactate irrigation on the yield volume and dry matter content in two champignon strains, ie Amycel 2200 and Italspawn F59. When both strains were irrigated with calcium lactate, there was a significant decrease observed in the yield when the concentration of the solution was 0.6%. On the other hand, when calcium chloride was applied to the Italspawn F59 strain, there was a significant decrease in the yield when the concentration was as low as 0.4%, whereas the yield of the Amycel 2200 strain dropped when the concentration of calcium chloride was 0.6%. The irrigation with calcium chloride and calcium lactate had influence on the content of dry matter in the champignon carpophores. When the solutions under investigation were applied at concentrations of 0.4 and 0.6%, there was a significant increase observed in the content of dry matter in both strains.

Open access

Krzysztof Buśko, Zbigniew Staniak, Patrycja Łach, Joanna Mazur-Różycka, Michalski Radosław and Michał Górski

Summary

Study aim: the aim of the study was to compare two methods for measuring punching and kicking force and the reaction time of athletes.

Material and methods: both systems were designed to measure and to analyse the mechanical characteristics of punches and strikes delivered by upper and lower limbs to a punching bag. The main difference between both punching bags was the way in which the delivered force was measured. The first method used strain gauges while the second method used accelerometer technology. Both systems consisted of a punching bag with software, attached signal diodes, and either embedded accelerometers or strain gauges. The bags were of different sizes. Acceleration transducers and gyroscopes or strain gauges were placed inside the punching bags, which allowed for measuring dynamics while the bag was struck. The software calculated strike force, the point of force application and its direction, and reaction time. Both systems were tested.

Results: the results of the accelerometer-based method show that the mean relative error of force calculation amounts to 3%. The measurement error of acceleration is less than 1%. The mean relative measurement error of the striking surface on the punching bag is 2%. However, the measurement error of force recorded with the strain gauge-based method is less than 1%. The results show that both systems are similar.

Conclusions: the punching bag having an embedded accelerometer is equipped with more versatile software, which makes the system a good tool for practical application in combat sport training.

Open access

Romuald Górski, Krzysztof Sobieralski, Marek Siwulski, Barbara Frąszczak and Iwona Sas-Golak

Abstract

The effect of different Trichoderma species on the yield of Agaricus bisporus strains was investigated in this study. For the first time, the effect of different Trichoderma species on the yield of Agaricus bisporus strains was determined under fully controlled conditions. Four button mushroom strains were used: Somycel 53, Somycel 11, Amycel 2200, and Polmycel 31. The cultivation substrate was inoculated with the following Trichoderma species: T. aggressivum f. europaeum, T. atroviride, T. hamatum, T. harzianum, T. inhamatum, T. koningii, and T. longibrachiatum. Except for T. atroviride, all the Trichoderma isolates reduced the yield of the button mushroom strains.