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Open access

Wiesław Ziaja, Justyna Dudek and Krzysztof Ostafin

Abstract

Landscape changes of the Gåsbreen glacier and its vicinity since 1899 are described. Maps at 1:50 000 scale of changes of the glacier’s elevation and extent for the periods 1938–1961, 1961–1990, 1990–2010, and 1938–2010 are analyzed in comparison with results of the authors’ field work in the summer seasons 1983, 1984, 2000, 2005 and 2008. During all the 20th century, the progressive recession of the glacier revealed in a dramatic decrease in the thickness of its lower part, with a small reduction of its area and length. However, further shrinkage produced significant shortening and reduction in area which resulted in final decline of the Goësvatnet glacial dammed lake in 2002. Hence, the lowest (and very thick, up to 150–160 m) part of the former glacier tongue and dammed lake were transformed into a new terraced river valley south of the glacier and a typical marginal zone with glacial landforms north of the glacier. Since 1961, the equilibrium line altitude of the Gåsbreen glacier has risen from ca 350 to ca 500 m a.s.l. and now is located below the very steep rocky walls of the Mehesten mountain ridge, 1378 m a.s.l. Hence, the glacier is being fed by snow avalanches from these rocky walls and much more snow melts during the warmer summer seasons, stimulating a quicker recession of the lowest part of the glacier. This recession may be stopped only by significant climate cooling or increase in snow.

Open access

Krzysztof Kostro, Katarzyna Dudek, Urszula Lisiecka, Barbara Majer-Dziedzic, Roman Aleksiewicz and Krzysztof Lutnicki

Abstract

The clinical form of natural zearalenone intoxication was observed in sheep that were kept indoors and fed a constant diet of feed concentrates containing high concentrations of zearalenone and its metabolite α-zearalenol. The clinical form of the disease was not noted in the control group, consisting of sheep that were kept on a pasture from spring to late autumn; only in the winter they were fed wheat pellets, in which the zearalenone concentration was determined to be the lowest among all used feed concentrates. During the course of natural zearalenone intoxication, metabolism of arachidonic acid increased, mainly due to enzymes of the cyclooxygenase group, which are responsible for the generation of prostaglandin F2α and thromboxane B2, and an increase in their concentration. Increased production of F2α and B2 was closely correlated with the serum level of SAA, an indicator of the intensity of the inflammatory reaction. This indicates that both compounds participated in the development of inflammatory reactions in the terminal end of the digestive tract that accompanied zearalenone intoxication in sheep. The imbalances noted between the eicosanoid classes investigated in this study were fundamentally responsible for the development of clinical symptoms in sick sheep that showed symptoms of partial or total prolapse of the anus and rectum and prolapse of the large intestine, which were the direct cause of the animals death.

Open access

Katarzyna Dudek, Krzysztof Lutnicki, Dariusz Bednarek, Jan Marczuk, Anna Kycko and Michał Reichert

Abstract

The aim of the study was to assess the changes of blood parameters in 12 three-week-old Polish Merino sheep subjected to experimental jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) infection.

Material and Methods: Haematological (WBC with leukocyte subpopulations: GRA, LYM, MID, and RBC, MCV, MCH, MCHC, HGB, HCT, PLT, and MPV) and biochemical blood parameters (acid/base balance, cation/anion content, and gasometry) were determined in blood samples collected one month after JSRV infection, then at four-week intervals for five consecutive months.

Results: A decrease in RBC, HCT, MCV, PLT, MPV, and LYM values in comparison with controls was found in the last month of observation. On the other hand, at the same time, an increase in HGB, MCH, MCHC, WBC, MID, and GRA indices was observed. Moreover, at the end of experiment blood gasometric indices such as pCO2, HCO3, and tCO2, and Na and K ion concentrations were higher in the affected lambs than in the healthy animals. The pH values of the challenged animals exhibited less alkaline character than in the case of controls, which was associated with a decrease in O2% saturation. However, the majority of differences between JSRV inoculated and control groups was not statistically significant.

Conclusion: The observed changes in the examined blood parameters can be considered as prodromal symptoms in the preclinical phase of adenocarcinoma development associated with JSRV infection.

Open access

Marek Krawczyk, Michał Grąt, Oskar Kornasiewicz, Krzysztof Zieniewicz, Paweł Nyckowski, Waldemar Patkowski, Ireneusz Grzelak, Krzysztof Dudek, Tadeusz Wróblewski and Rafał Paluszkiewicz

Liver transplantation in the treatment of patients with hepatocelular carcinoma

The aim of the study was to analyse liver transplantation results in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, considering selected factors.

Material and methods. The study group comprised 82 patients subject to liver transplantation at the Department of General, Transplant and Liver Surgery, Warsaw Medical University, due to hepatocellular carcinoma. Retrospective analysis concerned the period between 2001 and 2010. Distant survival results were evaluated, depending on whether Milan criteria were fulfilled, and the preoperative level of alpha-fetoprotein estimated. The obtained results were subject to statistical analysis. p<0.05 was considered as statistically significant.

Results. Mean survival time considering patients subject to liver transplantation, due to hepatocellular carcinoma amounted to 66.7 months (95% PU 58.9-74.4), while survival without tumor recurrence - 62.3 months (95% PU 54-70.6). The one, three and five - year survival rate was 88.7%, 74.8% and 72.0%, respectively. Survival without tumor recurrence was 87.5%, 67.1% and 67.1%, respectively. The overall survival of patients fulfilling the Milan criteria (44 of 82 patients - 53.7%) was significantly longer, in comparison to patients not fulfilling the above-mentioned (74.4 and 48.3 months, respectively, p=0.025). A significant difference was also observed, considering the overall survival in the absence of cancer recurrence (72.5 and 42.4 months, respectively, p=0.007). Considering patients not fulfilling the Milan criteria who presented with preoperative alpha-fetoprotein levels > 100 ng/ml, overall survival was shorter, as compared to the mean survival rate: 32.5 and 64.4 months, respectively, p = 0.009. Similar values were obtained in case of patients without tumor recurrence (27 and 57.1 months, p=0.011).

Conclusions. The obtained results confirmed the significant value of Milan criteria, when qualifying patients with hepatocellular carcinoma for liver transplantation. The above-mentioned also showed the potential value of preoperative alpha-fetoprotein level measurements, not only in the diagnostics and early hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis (patients with cirrhosis), but also in the prediction of survival and tumor recurrence after liver transplantation.

Open access

Ewelina Szacawa, Krzysztof Niemczuk, Katarzyna Dudek, Dariusz Bednarek, Ruben Rosales and Roger Ayling

Abstract

The aim of the study was to evaluate the presence of Mycoplasma bovis infection and co-infections with other Mycoplasma spp. infections in cattle. The tested population was one in the eastern region of Poland containing 66 dairy cows and 23 calves showing different clinical signs and suffering from pneumonia, mastitis, and arthritis. The incidence of M. bovis in co-infections with other Mycoplasma spp. was examined using serological traditional mycoplasma culture methods, and the molecular methods - PCR and polymerase chain reaction/denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR/DGGE). The PCR/DGGE method for detecting Mycoplasma spp. in cattle was used for the first time in Poland. The seroprevalence of M. bovis in the affected cattle herds in the eastern region of Poland was 47.8% in calves and 19.7% in dairy cows. The direct detection and identification of M. bovis from nasopharyngeal swabs by PCR revealed that 56.5% of calves were positive, but all of the dairy cows were negative. The PCR/DGGE identified eight (34.8%) instances of M. arginini and eight (26.1%) instances of M. bovirhinis co-infecting with M. bovis in ten calves. The seroprevalence of M. bovis in the tested population was 33.7%. Any future attempts to control mycoplasma infections require an insight into the current epidemiological situation of M. bovis infection and its relationship to other mycoplasmas in causing clinical disease in cattle. Using these diagnostic methods we have demonstrated that mycoplasmal infections are often caused by multiple species of Mycoplasma and not just the primary M. bovis pathogen.

Open access

Alicja Katarzyna Dziuba, Krzysztof Dudek, Krystyna Kobel-Buys, Grzegorz Żurek and Ewa Smajda

Abstract

Introduction: of the study. The elevated muscle tension in lower limbs (LL) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) results in the abnormal pressure on major blood vessels. Consequently, this leads to the disturbances in the circulatory system and a reduction in the temperature in lower limbs. This study assesses thermal effects of a single-session hippotherapy in LL in CP children by means of a non-invasive thermovision technique. Materials and methods: The study included 9 children with CP aged 11,8 ± 4,5 who were treated with hippotherapy. A thermovision camera was used for measurements of the temperature on the surface of lower limbs in anterior, posterior, lateral and medial parts before and after the hippotherapy. Results: The increase in the temperature was observed in the areas of lower limbs which remain directly in contact with the horse’s body. The Wilcoxon test (p<0,01) revealed statistically significant changes in the temperature of the posterior regions in lower limbs. Conclusions: Hippotherapy causes an increase in the temperature of lower limbs in the areas directly involved in contact with the horse’s body. When continuing the study, the factors required for positive effects of the hippotherapy, such as the quality of the therapy and patient’s activation should also be taken into consideration.

Open access

Ewelina Szacawa, Monika Szymańska-Czerwińska, Krzysztof Niemczuk, Katarzyna Dudek, Grzegorz Woźniakowski and Dariusz Bednarek

Abstract

Introduction: Mycoplasma bovis is one of the main pathogens involved in cattle pneumonia. Other mycoplasmas have also been directly implicated in respiratory diseases in cattle. The prevalence of different Mycoplasma spp. in cattle affected by respiratory diseases and molecular characteristics of M. bovis field strains were evaluated. Material and Methods: In total, 713 nasal swabs from 73 cattle herds were tested. The uvrC gene fragment was amplified by PCR and PCR products were sequenced. PCR/DGGE and RAPD were performed. Results: It was found that 39 (5.5%) samples were positive for M. bovis in the PCR and six field strains had point nucleotide mutations. Additionally, the phylogenetic analysis of 20 M. bovis field strains tested with RAPD showed two distinct groups of M. bovis strains sharing only 3.8% similarity. PCR/DGGE analysis demonstrated the presence of bacteria belonging to the Mollicutes class in 79.1% of DNA isolates. The isolates were identified as: Mycoplasma bovirhinis, M. dispar, M. bovis, M. canis, M. arginini, M. canadense, M. bovoculi, M. alkalescens, and Ureaplasma diversum. Conclusion: Different Mycoplasma spp. strains play a crucial role in inducing respiratory diseases in cattle.

Open access

Krzysztof Skrzypkowski, Waldemar Korzeniowski, Krzysztof Zagórski and Piotr Dudek

Abstract

In the underground mines of the Legnica–Głogów Copper District (LGOM) the main way to protect the room excavation is the use of a rock bolt support. For many years, it has proven to be an efficient security measure in excavations which met all safety standards and requirements. The article presents the consumption of the rock bolt support in the Mining Department “Polkowice–Sieroszowice” in the years 2010–2015 as well as the number of bolt supports that were used to secure the excavations. In addition, it shows the percentage of bolt supports that were used to conduct rebuilding work and cover the surface of exposed roofs. One of the factors contributing to the loss of the functionality of bolt supports is corrosion whose occurrence may lead directly to a reduction in the diameter of rock bolt support parts, in particular rods, bearing plates and nuts. The phenomenon of the corrosion of the bolt support and its elements in underground mining is an extremely common phenomenon due to the favorable conditions for its development in mines, namely high temperature and humidity, as well as the presence of highly aggressive water. This involves primarily a decrease in the capacity of bolt support construction, which entails the need for its strengthening, and often the need to perform the reconstruction of the excavation.

The article presents an alternative for steel bearing plates, namely plates made using the spatial 3D printing technology. Prototype bearing plates were printed on a 3D printer Formiga P100 using the “Precymit” material. The used printing technology was SLS (Selective Laser Sintering), which is one of the most widely used technologies among all the methods of 3D printing for the short series production of the technical parts of the final product.

The article presents the stress–strain characteristic of the long expansion connected rock bolt support OB25 with a length of 3.65 m. A rock bolt support longer than 2.6 m is an additional bolt support in excavations, and it is increasingly frequently used to reinforce roofs and in rebuilding the underground mines of KGHM Polish Copper S.A. In order to conduct the laboratory tests that are most suitable for the mine conditions, and yet are carried out on a laboratory test facility, the Authors used a steel cylinder with an external diameter of 102 mm and a length of 600 mm, which was filled with a core of rock (dolomite) from the roofs of the mine workings.

In addition the maximum load that took over the bolt support made of rods and connected with sleeves was determined. For the initial tension, the elastic and plastic range of the maximal displacements, which were measured by the rope encoder, were determined. The statical tests of the expansion rock bolt support were carried out at the laboratory of the Department of Underground Mining in simulated mine conditions. The test facility enables the study of the long bolt rods on a geometric scale of 1:1 for the different ways of fixing. The aim of the laboratory research was to obtain the stress–strain characteristics, of the long expansion rock bolt support with a steel bearing plate and a plate printed on a 3D printer.

Open access

Dariusz Bednarek, Katarzyna Dudek, Krzysztof Kwiatek, Małgorzata Świątkiewicz, Sylwester Świątkiewicz and Juliusz Strzetelski

Abstract

The aim of the study was to evaluate the immune effects of genetically modified (GM), insect resistant corn (MON810) expressing toxin protein of Bacillus thuringiensis, and glyphosate-tolerant soybean meal (Roundup Ready MON-40-30-2), which are used as the feed mixture components in domestic animals. The study was conducted on 60 pigs (36 fatteners and 24 sows), 20 calves, 40 broilers, and 40 laying hens. Each species was divided into four basic nutritional groups: group I (control) - conventional feed, group II - feed consisted of GM soybean meal and non-modified corn, group III - non-modified soybean meal and GM corn, group IV - GM soybean meal and GM corn. Moreover, in the experiment on fatteners two additional groups were formed: group V - animals fed both conventional soybean meal and bruised grain, and group VI - GM soybean meal and conventional bruised grain. The results of study did not reveal any significant effect of feed mixtures containing GM components on the immune response in all animals regardless of their species and technological producing groups.

Open access

Marek Krawczyk, Michał Grąt, Karolina Grąt, Karolina Wronka, Maciej Krasnodębski, Jan Stypułkowski, Łukasz Masior, Wacław Hołówko, Joanna Ligocka, Paweł Nyckowski, Tadeusz Wróblewski, Rafał Paluszkiewicz, Waldemar Patkowski, Krzysztof Zieniewicz, Leszek Pączek, Piotr Milkiewicz, Urszula Ołdakowska-Jedynak, Bogusław Najnigier, Krzysztof Dudek, Piotr Remiszewski, Ireneusz Grzelak, Oskar Kornasiewicz, Marcin Kotulski, Piotr Smoter, Mariusz Grodzicki, Michał Korba, Piotr Kalinowski, Michał Skalski, Krzysztof Zając, Rafał Stankiewicz, Marta Przybysz, Bartosz Cieślak, Łukasz Nazarewski, Małgorzata Nowosad, Konrad Kobryń, Michał Wasilewicz, Joanna Raszeja-Wyszomirska, Jolanta Piwowarska, Dorota Giercuszkiewicz, Joanna Sańko-Resmer, Sławomir Rejowski, Monika Szydłowska-Jakimiuk, Barbara Górnicka, Bogna Wróblewska-Ziarkiewicz, Michał Mazurkiewicz, Grzegorz Niewiński, Jacek Pawlak and Ryszard Pacho

Abstract

Liver transplantation is a well-established treatment of patients with end-stage liver disease and selected liver tumors. Remarkable progress has been made over the last years concerning nearly all of its aspects.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the evolution of long-term outcomes after liver transplantations performed in the Department of General, Transplant and Liver Surgery (Medical University of Warsaw).

Material and methods. Data of 1500 liver transplantations performed between 1989 and 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. Transplantations were divided into 3 groups: group 1 including first 500 operations, group 2 including subsequent 500, and group 3 comprising the most recent 500. Five year overall and graft survival were set as outcome measures.

Results. Increased number of transplantations performed at the site was associated with increased age of the recipients (p<0.001) and donors (p<0.001), increased rate of male recipients (p<0.001), and increased rate of piggyback operations (p<0.001), and decreased MELD (p<0.001), as well as decreased blood (p=0.006) and plasma (p<0.001) transfusions. Overall survival was 71.6% at 5 years in group 1, 74.5% at 5 years in group 2, and 85% at 2.9 years in group 3 (p=0.008). Improvement of overall survival was particularly observed for primary transplantations (p=0.004). Increased graft survival rates did not reach the level of significance (p=0.136).

Conclusions. Long-term outcomes after liver transplantations performed in the Department of General, Transplant and Liver Surgery are comparable to those achieved in the largest transplant centers worldwide and are continuously improving despite increasing recipient age and wider utilization of organs procured from older donors.