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Krzysztof Dragan

Structural Health Monitoring Approach to the Aerospace Structures

In the article only selected information regarding the SHM applications has been presented. These applications are associated with damage detection and damage growth monitoring. That approach has got crucial influence on the aircraft maintenance procedures. SHM ensures higher reliability and safety of the structures as well as repair monitoring. Right now in the AFIT, there is being conducted research work focused on the application of the SHM system for the integration with the aerospace structures for periodical and on-line monitoring.

Open access

Lukasz Kornas and Krzysztof Dragan

Analysis of the Possibility to Assess the Occurrence of Hidden Corrosion in Lap Joints Using Active Thermography

The article details the NDT technique of pulse thermography used for objective diagnosis of riveted lap joints construction. The degradation of materials manifesting in corrosion is inherent in the process of aircraft operation. One type of corrosion is galvanic corrosion occurring in the overlap joints (known as hidden corrosion). As a result of the potential difference between the two layers of the aluminum alloy skin, there occurs the phenomenon of oxidation of the material, producing corrosion products in the form of oxide compounds characterized by heat properties different than those of the base material. Active thermography techniques allow observing infrared energy, which changes due to the difference of thermal properties of the tested materials.

Open access

Krzysztof Dragan and Piotr Synaszko

In-Service Flaw Detection and Quantification in the Composite Structures of Aircraft

Taking into consideration the increased usage of composites for aircraft structures there is a necessity for gathering information about structural integrity of such components. During the manufacturing of composites as well as during in service and maintenance procedures there is a possibility for damage occurrence. There is a large number of failure modes which can happen in such structures. These failure modes affect structural integrity and durability. In this work modern approach for detection of composites damage detection such as: delaminations, disbonds, foreign object inclusion and core damage has been presented. This detection is possible with the use of advanced P-C aided Non Destructive Testing methods. In the article nondestructive testing results for the composite vertical tail skins on MiG-29 aircraft will be delivered as well as some results of F-16 horizontal stabilizer and W-3 helicopter main rotor blades. Moreover some results of the composite honeycomb and sandwich structures will be presented based on the materials used in the construction of gliders and small aircraft. Factors affecting structural integrity and durability of the composites will be highlighted as well as necessity of the inspection with the use of modern NDT techniques. At the end some effort with Structural Health Monitoring connected with possibility of condition monitoring of composites will be presented.

Open access

Artur Kurnyta, Krzysztof Dragan and Michal Dziendzikowski

Abstract

SHM is a monitoring system which uses sensors, actuators and data transmission, acquisition and analysis, permanently integrated with the inspected object. The objective of SHM is to detect, localize, identify and predict development of fatigue fractures, increasing safety and reliability. This paper presents an assessment of sensor technologies used in aircraft SHM system. Due to the fact that most of these measurement methods are relatively new and still under development the present appraisal focuses on a number of parameters with reference to each method, including a sensor’s installation issues, reliability, power consumption, sensor infrastructure, sensitivity and cost and availability. The work is predominantly focused on the assessment ofpermanently bonded sensors, such as foil strain gages, Comparative Vacuum Monitoring (CVM), Piezo sensors (PZT), Eddy-Current Transducers (ECT). Finally, all these methods are briefly discussed.

Open access

Piotr Reymer, Andrzej Leski and Krzysztof Dragan

Abstract

This article presents preparation of the Full Scale Fatigue Test of the PZL-130 "Orlik" TC-II. After completing the flight load acquisition stage [1] a load block representing 200 Simulated Flight Hours in 194 flights was developed. This load block was further modified in order to introduce fatigue markers on the crack surface [2] visible during Quantitative Fractography, planned to take place during the Teardown Inspection of the structure after completion of the test. Meanwhile, the test rig along with the loading system and the test specimen were prepared at Výzkumný a Zkušební Letecký Ústav (VZLU, Prague, Czech Republic). The test specimen, consisting of the overhauled fuselage, modernized wings and the landing gear, was instrumented with the identical strain gauge measuring system as presented in [3], which was calibrated before the commencement of fatigue testing. Finally, some preliminary issues encountered during the fatigue test startup were highlighted and the outline for future work was described

Open access

Piotr Woźny, Józef Błachnio and Krzysztof Dragan

Abstract

The paper presents the problems arising in the process of repairs of aircraft (AC) components made of aluminium alloys during arc welding with the TIG (tungsten inert gas) method. The paper provides information on the rules applicable in the welding process qualification. The procedure algorithm when qualifying the welding process was presented in accordance with PN-EN ISO 15614-2. The main causes and factors affecting the formation of defects and welding imperfections were described and classified. The principles of preparing the components for welding and selection of a binder were discussed. The issue of effect of the welding parameters on the formation of defects and welding imperfections in relation to PN-L-01426 standard was raised. The application of computed tomography in assessment of the welded joints was described and tomograms from tests of butt welds of aluminium alloys made of the AW 5754 grade aluminium alloy were presented. On the example of the tomograms, the welding imperfections and defects formed in the tested joints were discussed. The usefulness of computed tomography in assessment of the welds’ quality was shown.

Open access

Marcin Zapłotny, Andrzej Katunin and Krzysztof Dragan

Abstract

Following the damage tolerance philosophy in aircraft design and operation, one of the most significant stages of maintenance is non-destructive testing of structures. It is, therefore, essential to use testing methods sensitive to particular damage types occurring in aircraft structures during operation. In this paper, the authors present a study on selection and comparison of methods of information fusion applied to testing the results of inspection of composite structures used in aircraft elements, obtained using various ultrasonic methods. The presented approach of fusion of ultrasonic scans allows for enhancement of damage detection and identification due to the presence of different parts of information about detected damage obtained from different initial information sources in a single resulting set. Such an approach can be helpful at the decision-making stage during inspection of aircraft elements and structures. Besides the methodology, the GUI-based software for performing fusion of various types of ultrasonic data is presented.

Open access

Krzysztof Dragan, Lukasz Kornas, Adam Latoszek and Michał Salacinski

Diagnostics of Composite Aircraft Structures Using Non-Destructive Tests with Thermographic, Ultrasound and Acoustic Methods

Open access

Michał Sałaciński, Piotr Synaszko, Michał Stefaniuk and Krzysztof Dragan

Monitoring of Crack Growth in a Structure Under a Composite Patch

In civil as well as in military aviation, boron, carbon and aramid fiber reinforced composites are employed for the repair of metal structures. After such composite bonded repairs, the monitoring of the repaired structure along with the composite patch and its bond is necessary.

The paper describes the possibilities of utilizing NDT methods for periodical check-ups and examinations. Also, a novel approach to continuous monitoring of the repaired structure is presented.

Open access

Krzysztof Dragan, Michał Dziendzikowski, Andrzej Leski, Ziemowit Dworakowski and Tadeusz Uhl

Abstract

This paper presents an approach to damage growth monitoring and early damage detection in the structure of PZL - 130 ORLIK TC II turbo-prop military trainer aft using the statistical models elaborated by the Polish Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT) and the network of the sensors attached to the structure. Drawing on the previous experiences of the AFIT and AGH in structural health monitoring, the present research will deploy an array of the PZT sensors in the structure of the PZL -130 Orlik TC II aircraft. The aircraft has just started Full Scale Fatigue Test (FSFT) that will continue up to 2013. The FSFT of the structure is necessary as a consequence of the structure modification and the change of the maintenance system - the transition to Condition Based Maintenance. In this paper, a novel approach to the monitoring of the aircraft hot-spots will be presented. Special attention will be paid to the preliminary results of the statistical models that provide an automated tool to infer about the presence of damage and its size. In particular, the effectiveness of the selected signal characteristics will be assessed using dimensional reduction methods (PCA) and the so-called averaged damage indices will be delivered. Moreover, the results of the signal classification based on the neural network will be presented alongside the numerical model of the wave propagation. The work contains selected information about the project scope and the results achieved at the preliminary stage of the project