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  • Author: Krzysztof Chmielowiec x
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Open access

Piotr Chmielewski, Bartłomiej Strzelec, Jolanta Chmielowiec, Krzysztof Chmielowiec and Krzysztof Borysławski

Abstract

Bilirubin is a potent antioxidant and an important anti-inflammatory factor. Therefore, there has been an increasing focus on serum bilirubin as a negative risk factor of cardiovascular mortality in men and an indicator of improved survival in both sexes, but the direct mechanisms of these links and the causes of sex differences are not well understood. Moreover, the evidence from longitudinal studies on effects of bilirubin on longevity is limited. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed two groups of older adults to explore age-dependent changes in serum bilirubin levels and their associations with long-term survival in both sexes. Longitudinal data from 142 individuals (68 men and 74 women) aged 45 to 70 years were compared with cross-sectional data from 225 individuals (113 men and 112 women). The latter group was divided into four categories of survival, i.e. 53, 63, 68, and 76+ based on data on lifespan. ANOVA, t-test, and regression analysis were run. The analysis of the longitudinal data showed an increase in serum total bilirubin levels in men (0.3038e0.093x, R2 = 0.667) and women (0.1838e0.0187x, R2 = 0.950), while the analysis of cross-sectional data revealed a U-shaped pattern of age-related changes in men (0.001x2 - 0.1263x + 4.4524, R2 = 0.999) but an inverted U-shaped pattern in women (0.0006x2 + 0.072x - 1.6924, R2 = 0.195). On balance, these results suggest that elevated but normal bilirubin levels might confer a survival advantage in older men but not women. Alternatively, the positive relationship between serum total bilirubin and lifespan was not causal but coincidental. Further studies are needed to elucidate the direct mechanisms of the association between serum bilirubin levels and longevity in elderly people of both sexes.

Open access

Piotr Chmielewski, Krzysztof Borysławski, Krzysztof Chmielowiec and Jolanta Chmielowiec

Abstract

Longitudinal studies of aging concerning individuals with comparable lifestyle, diet, health profile, socioeconomic status, and income remain extraordinarily rare. The purposes of our ongoing project are as follows: (i) to collect extensive data on biological and medical aspects of aging in the Polish population, (ii) to determine factors affecting the rate and course of aging, (iii) to understand how aging unfolds as a dynamic and malleable process in ontogeny, and (iv) to find novel predictors of longevity. Our investigation followed 142 physically healthy asylum inmates, including 68 males and 74 females, for at least 25 years from the age of 45 years onward. Cross-sectional assessment involved 225 inmates, including 113 males and 112 females. All the patients lived for a very long time under similar and good environmental conditions at the hospital in Cibórz, Lubuskie Province. They maintained virtually the same daily schedule and lifestyle. The rate and direction of changes with age in selected anthropometric and physiological traits were determined using ANOVA, t-test, and regression analysis. There were sex differences in the rate and pattern of age-related changes in certain characteristics such as relative weight, red blood cell count, monocyte count, thymol turbidity value, systolic blood pressure, and body temperature. Body weight, the body mass index (BMI), and total bilirubin level increased with advancing age, while body height decreased with age in both sexes. In conclusion, the aging process was associated with many regressive alterations in biological traits in both sexes but the rate and pattern of these changes depended on biological factors such as age and sex. There were only few characteristics which did not change significantly during the period under study. On the basis of comparison between the pattern of longitudinal changes with aging and the pattern of cross-sectional changes with age in the analyzed traits, we were able to predict which pattern of changes is associated with longer lifespan.

Open access

Piotr Chmielewski, Bartłomiej Strzelec, Jolanta Chmielowiec, Krzysztof Chmielowiec and Krzysztof Borysławski

Abstract

In elderly people, anemia occurs with increasing frequency with each advancing decade and can be a harbinger of very serious health conditions, including gastrointestinal bleeding, gastric and duodenal ulcers, and cancer. Therefore, age-dependant changes in hematological parameters deserve special attention. Nonetheless, very few longitudinal studies of aging have focused on possible associations between basic anthropometric characteristics and hematological parameters in older people. Here, we present some evidence that body size can be associated with red blood cell count as well as some other selected hematological parameters in adults aged 45 to 70 years. Longitudinal data on anthropometric and hematological parameters have been obtained from physically healthy residents at the Regional Psychiatric Hospital for People with Mental Disorders in Cibórz, Lubuskie Province, Poland (142 individuals, including 68 men and 74 women). The residents who took psychoactive drugs were excluded from the study. To evaluate the studied relationships, three anthropometric traits were used and three dichotomous divisions of the study sample were made. The medians of body height, body weight, and body mass index at the age of 45 years were used to divide the sample into: shorter and taller, lighter and heavier, and slimmer and stouter individuals, respectively. Student’s t-test, Pearson’s correlation, and regression analysis were employed. The results of the present study suggest that the relationship between body size and red blood cell count is slightly more pronounced in men and its strength depends on age. However, the correlations between body size and red blood cell count proved to be weak in both sexes. With aging, the strength of the relation decreased gradually, which might have been caused by the aging-associated changes in the hematopoietic system, anemia, or was an artifact. Further studies are needed to elucidate the unclear association between body size and hematological parameters in older adults.

Open access

Piotr Chmielewski, Krzysztof Borysławski, Krzysztof Chmielowiec and Jolanta Chmielowiec

Abstract

The connection between the rate of height loss in older people and their general health status has been well documented in the medical literature. Our study was aimed at furthering the characterization of this interrelationship in the context of health indices and mortality in a hospitalized population of Polish adults. Data were collated from a literature review and from a longitudinal study of aging carried out in the Polish population which followed 142 physically healthy inmates, including 68 men and 74 women, for at least 25 years from the age of 45 onwards. Moreover, cross-sectional data were available from 225 inmates, including 113 men and 112 women. These subjects were confined at the same hospital. ANOVA, t-test, and regression analysis were employed. The results indicate that the onset of height loss emerges in the fourth and five decade of life and there is a gradual acceleration of reduction of height at later stages of ontogeny in both sexes. Postmenopausal women experience a more rapid loss of height compared with men. The individuals who had higher rate of loss of height (≥3 cm/decade) tend to be at greater risk of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. In conclusion, our findings suggest that a systematic assessment of the rate of loss of height can be useful for clinicians caring for elderly people because of its prognostic value in terms of morbidity and mortality.

Open access

Piotr Chmielewski, Bartłomiej Strzelec, Krzysztof Borysławski, Krzysztof Chmielowiec, Jolanta Chmielowiec and Paweł Dąbrowski

Abstract

Although normal aging does not have a pernicious effect on the homeostasis of fluids, renal reserve in elderly people can be depleted. The purpose of the present study was to assess the relationship between longitudinal changes with age in basic urine parameters (specific gravity and pH) in older men and women, depending on their body height and relative body weight. Longitudinal data on these two quantitative traits of the urine were available for 142 physically healthy individuals, including 68 men and 74 women. All subjects were 45 years of age at the beginning and 70 at the end of the period under investigation. All measurements were taken in accordance with internationally accepted requirements. Specific gravity was assessed using a hydrometer, and pH was measured using a pH meter. ANOVA, t-test, and regression analysis were performed. No significant sex differences in specific gravity or urine pH were observed. In both sexes, urine specific gravity decreased with age according to exponential model of regression. In men, there was a gradual increase in the pH of the urine until age 65, and the best fitting regression model was polynomial. In women, on the other hand, there was an exiguous decrease in urine pH throughout the period under study, and the best fitting regression model proved to be exponential. As the process of renal aging commences relatively early in ontogeny and manifests itself in many structural and functional changes, urinalysis and other more sophisticated methods of diagnosis of renal diseases are essential for proper assessment of health status of adults and older individuals. The rate of age-related changes in the analyzed traits of the urine was commensurate in both sexes, thereby revealing no evidence of significant sex differences in terms of renal aging in the period between 45 and 70 years of age.