The paper demonstrates the influence of different mineral fertilization with phosphorus and potassium on the concentration of copper (Cu) and manganese (Mn) in the ear leaf of maize at the stage of flowering (BBCH 65) as well as the contents and accumulation of the nutrients studied in maize when fully ripe (BBCH 89). A single factor experiment was carried out in 5-year-cycle (2007-2011), in the randomized complete block design. The experiment was conducted as a part of a long-term stationary trial. The investigation comprised 8 different P and K treatments: the absolute control, exclusive of one of the main nutrients (P - WPN or K - WKN), reduced amount of phosphorus and potassium (to 25% - W25 and to 50% WP50, WK50) as well as recommended amounts of basic nutrients (NPKMg - W100 and NP*KMg, P* - P* as PAPR - W100 PAPR). Evaluation of the nutriational status, performed in the ear leaf of maize at flowering stage, showed that regardless of fertilization treatment applied, the concentration of copper was lower than normative values, whereas that of manganese ranged within the optimal scope. At the same time, there was found a significant relationship between the grain yield obtained and acquisition of both copper and manganese by maize at flowering stage (stronger for manganese, r = 0.614). The total accumulation of copper and manganese in fully ripe maize was significantly differentiated as a result of mineral fertilization. The total uptake of Cu and Mn was reduced under the conditions of 10-year lack of P fertilization. Uptake reduction was considerably more advanced when K fertilization was absent for 10 years. Regardless of the experimental factor effects, more than 50% of the total copper uptake was accumulated in grain, whereas the majority of manganese was accumulated in maize leaves (50-64% of the total uptake). Correlation analysis showed a significant relationship between maize grain yield and the total accumulation of copper, whereas that of manganese was observed only in 3 of 8 treatments tested (WPN, WP50 and W100 as PAPR).
In consequence of the adoption of the Manila Amendments to the STCW Convention and Code, the ECDIS model course would need to be reviewed and updated. Accordingly, three Polish matitime academies/universities present common position what necessary steps should be taken to revise and update existing IMO model course on Operational Use of ECDIS. Notes and comments relate to both the current existing IMO model course 1.27 on operational use of ECDIS and its new version proposed by the United States in the document STW 43/3/1. Comments and remarks to revised draft model course 1.27 cover the following parts and topics: Course Framework, Course Outline and Timetable, Detailed Teaching Syllabus, Instructor Manual, Evaluation and Assessment, and appendices for the ECDIS Instructor: Introduction of Operational use of ECDIS, ECDIS Performance Standard references, ECDIS Carriage Requirements, STCW Manila Amendments on ECDIS, Training scenario types and scenario success, and Integrated navigation training example.
The objective of the study was to assess the effects of long-term application of liquid manure from pig production and digestate from manure fermentation installation for biogas production on chemical changes in the soil, i.e.: soil reaction, accumulation of available forms of phosphorus, potassium, and magnesium in the soil arable layer, as well as the phosphorus balance. The assessment was carried out in two highly productive farms specialising in pig production, located in the Zachodniopomorskie Province. The soils under the study were treated with slurry and digestate annually for subsequent 12 years. The assessment of changes in nutrient content and accumulation was performed twice: after 10 and 12 years of fertiliser treatments. The rate of changes in soil reaction due to slurry and digestate application varied depending on the analysed field. Irrespective of the analysed field, 12-year application of slurry caused a drop in soil pH by an average of half a unit. The direction of changes in the content of available nutrient forms in the soil varied depending on the element evaluated. Notwithstanding the analysed field and the type of slurry used, a decrease in the content of available forms of potassium in the soil was observed. Slurry fertilisation did not affect magnesium contents in the soil. In the study period, the content of magnesium remained unchanged. Among the evaluated nutrients, an increased nutrient content in the soil was only found in the case of phosphorus – as a result of application of liquid manure in combination with mineral fertilisation. In the analysed farms, in the case of fields fertilised with slurry and digestate, the phosphorus balance was positive, and ranged from 15 to 40 kg P·ha−1. The obtained values of the phosphorous balance strongly suggest that regardless of the type of liquid manure used on the farm, measures should be taken to introduce changes in the scope of fertilisation plans, with particular emphasis on the principles of balanced fertilisation.
This paper presents assumptions and process of the forming of a risk assessment model for collision between a passenger ferry departing from or approaching port of Świnoujście and a chemical tanker carrying a dangerous cargo. In order to assess navigational safety on the basis of data obtained from AIS system, were prepared probabilistic domains of ships, which made it possible to estimate number of navigational incidents as well as their spatial distribution, that consequently allowed to determine potentially dangerous areas. The next phase was formulation of a simulative model intended for the calculating of probability of collision between the ferry and chemical tanker as well as the determining of characteristic scenarios for such collision. This paper presents also an analysis of consequences of the collision with taking into consideration a damage of cargo tanks.
Hemipelagic green clayey shales and thin muddy turbidites accumulated in a deep sea environment below the CCD in the Skole Basin, a part of the Outer Carpathian realm, during the Middle Cenomanian. The hemipelagites contain numerous radiolarians, associated with deep-water agglutinated foraminifera. These sediments accumulated under mesotrophic conditions with limited oxygen concentration. Short-term periodic anoxia also occurred during that time. Muddy turbidity currents caused deposition of siliciclastic and biogenic material, including calcareous foramini-fers and numerous sponge spicules. The preservation and diversity of the spicules suggests that they originate from disarticulation of moderately diversified sponge assemblages, which lived predominantly in the neritic-bathyal zone. Analyses of radiolarian ecological groups and pellets reflect the water column properties during the sedimentation of green shales. At that time, surface and also intermediate waters were oxygenated enough and sufficiently rich in nutri-ents to enable plankton production. Numerous, uncompacted pellets with nearly pristine radiolarian skeletons inside show that pelletization was the main factor of radiolarian flux into the deep basin floor. Partly dissolved skeletons indicate that waters in the Skole Basin were undersaturated in relation to silica content. Oxygen content might have been depleted in the deeper part of the water column causing periodic anoxic conditions which prevent rapid bacterial degra-dation of the pellets during their fall to the sea floor.