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  • Author: Krzysztof Anusz x
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The paper presents the first results of a study on the contamination of honey produced in the Republic of Kazakhstan with C. botulinum spores known to pose a potential infection threat to infants. During microbiological analysis, culturing methods with TPGY, Willis-Hobbs agar, FAA agar connected with PCR, sequencing, and a mouse bioassay were used. The C. botulinum contamination rate of honey was relatively low as determined, at 0.91%. Nonetheless, the potential danger of the bacteria to childrens’ health should not be neglected



Common parasites of the European bison include gastro-intestinal and pulmonary nematodes, liver flukes (Fasciola hepatica), tapeworms, and protozoa of the genus Coccidia. This study compared the extensiveness and intensities of European bison parasitic invasions in three north-eastern Polish forests in different seasons and queried the role of parasitological monitoring in sanitary and hygienic control of feeding places.

Material and Methods

Faecal samples were collected in the Białowieża, Knyszyńska, and Borecka Forests between 2014 and 2016, as were some from an area neighbouring the Białowieża Forest outside the Natura 2000 protected area. Parasites were detected in individual samples with the flotation, decanting and Baermann methods.


The eggs of Trichostrongylidae, Aonchotheca sp., Nematodirus sp., Strongyloides spp., Trichuris sp., Moniezia spp., and Fasciola hepatica; the larvae of Dictyocaulus viviparus; and the oocytes of Eimeria spp. were identified. Significant variation in invasion intensity and diversity was seen by origin and season. The relationships were assessed first by univariable tests and next multivariately, when origin and season emerged as the major risk factors for exposure to most of the parasites.


The differences in the level of parasitic infection between the forests did not have implications for its sufficiency to cause clinical symptoms. However, the associations and risk factors found enable the necessary preventive measures to be taken to protect the E. bison from exposure or decrease the risks. Additionally, parasitological monitoring is appropriate as the method of sanitary and hygienic control of European bison winter feeding places. Threats to public health through adventitious invasions by zoonotic factors such as F. hepatica have been identified.


The goat (Capra hircus) is a perfect animal model for analyzing the transcriptome of milk somatic cells (MSCs), as sufficient numbers of somatic cells in goat milk, i.e., exfoliated epithelial cells, can be obtained using noninvasive methods. RNA integrity and purity are the first and most important parameters qualifying samples for transcriptomic tests and next-generation sequencing, as RNA quality influences experimental results. The aim of this study was to optimize a method for obtaining high-quality RNA from goat MSCs, irrespective of effects like breed, lactation stage, health status (e.g., with or without small ruminant lentivirus [SRLV] infection), or number of somatic cells. Milk samples were obtained from goats of two Polish breeds in various lactation stages and in different parities, and from goats infected and not infected with SRLV. Altogether, 412 MSC samples were examined: 206 using method A with fenozol and 206 using method B with QIAzol. Though the overall purity (measured as absorbance ratios at 260 nm/280 nm and 260 nm/230 nm) of the RNA material was comparable, the average yield of RNA isolated using method A was 11.9 µg, while method B’s average yield was 29.9 µg. Moreover, method B resulted in good quality RNA suitable for transcriptome analysis. Results were confirmed by RT-qPCR, using 18S rRNA and RPLP0 as the reference genes. The application of our modified treatment method was successful in obtaining high-integrity samples for transcriptomic or next-generation sequencing analysis. Using a 400 mL milk sample cooled in ice directly after milking, securing the cooling chain process from milking to MSC isolation, and applying method B to isolate RNA, we obtained good RNA quality irrespective of the goats’ breed, lactation stage, parity, milk yield, SRLV infection, and even milk yield and number of somatic cells in milk.