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  • Author: Krystyna Wieczorek-Ciurowa x
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Katarzyna Fela, Krystyna Wieczorek-Ciurowa, Michał Konopka and Zenon Woźny

Present and prospective leather industry waste disposal

In this paper general characteristics of the main leather industry waste regarding its amount reduction by thermal treatment have been presented. Both the tannery solid wastes and the sludge contain organic substances. Their energy value is more than 50% higher in comparison to hard coal (nominally 20 MJ/kg as dry material). Up to now, the considerable amounts of energy are not recovered; leather wastes are predominantly on landfill. Implementation of a comprehensive thermal method for tannery solid waste and sludge utilization can permit to solve the waste disposal problem by effective neutralization of all of the waste. Moreover, it should bring economic benefits associated with steam or hot water production and landfill tax avoiding. The study is oriented towards the practical application.

Open access

Piotr Dulian, Wojciech Bąk, Krystyna Wieczorek-Ciurowa and Czesław Kajtoch

Abstract

This paper presents mechanochemical synthesis as an alternative to the traditional high-temperature synthesis of advanced electrotechnical ceramic materials with a perovskite-type structure. The reaction conditions for high-energy ball milling, e.g. reaction environment, energy of milling and additives to BaTiO3 such as metallic iron or zirconia from the exfoliation of the milling vessel and grinding media are discussed.

Open access

Piotr Dulian, Wojciech Bąk, Krystyna Wieczorek-Ciurowa and Czesław Kajtoch

Abstract

The study shows the advisability of using a mechanochemical synthesis method, based on a high-energy planetary ball milling, to a modification of barium titanate by a vanadium doping. This method improves useful properties of BaTi0:95V0:05O3 as a capacitor material. It has a high value of electric permittivity ɛ′ in the wide range of temperature and low dielectric losses ɛ″ as well as a low electrical conductivity.