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  • Author: Krystyna Romanivna Bakhtina x
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Farrell II and the Concept of an ‘Emanation of the State’


The Court of Justice of the EU (CJEU) has established that directives cannot produce horizontal direct effect and thus may only be invoked against the State or its emanations. In the recent Farrell 2 judgement, the Court has clarified the concept of an ‘emanation of the State’ which is crucial for the purposes of applying vertical direct effect. The aim of this paper is to analyse the concept of an ‘emanation of the State’ presented in Farrell 2 ruling. Further, the article highlights that the judgement is a positive development as it brings consistency to the EU case law and corresponds to the present realities when new ‘emanations’ are emerging with the special powers attributed by the State.

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