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Krystyna Makowska and Sławomir Gonkowski


Since its first description over 30 years ago, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide has been the subject of many studies. Most of these investigations pertain to occurrence and functions of CART within the central nervous system, where this peptide first of all takes part in regulation of feeding, stress reactions, as well as neuroprotective and neuroregenerative processes. However, in recent years more and more studies concern the presence of CART in the gastrointestinal system. This peptide has been described both in stomach and intestine, as well as in other digestive organs such as pancreas or gallbladder. Particularly much information relates to distribution of CART in the enteric nervous system, which is located within the wall of digestive tract. Other studies have described this peptide in intestinal endocrinal cells. Moreover, it is known that CART can be present in various types of neuronal cells and may co-localize with different types of other neuronal active substances, which play roles of neuromediators and/or neuromodulators. On the other hand precise functions of CART in the gastrointestinal system still remain unknown. It is assumed that this peptide is involved in the regulation of gastrointestinal motility, intestinal blood flow, secretion of intestinal juice, somatostatin and/or insulin, as well as takes part in pathological processes within the gastrointestinal tract. The large number of recent studies concerning the above mentioned problems makes that knowledge about occurrence and functions of CART in the digestive system rather piecemeal and requires clarifying, which is the aim of the present article.

Open access

Anna Snarska, Dominika Wysocka, Liliana Rytel, Krystyna Makowska and Sławomir Gonkowski



Bisphenol A (BPA) is a substance widely used in industry for the production of polycarbonates and epoxy resins used in packaging and containers for beverages, contact lenses, compact discs (CDs), window panes, and many other elements. This compound belongs to the group of polyphenols and xenoestrogens commonly found in the human environment. What we know about BPA is still insufficient to enable us to protect our health against its adverse effects, and current knowledge of the influence of BPA on erythroblastic cell lines in bone marrow is rather fragmentary. The aim of the experiment was to assess the effect of two doses of BPA (0.05 mg/kg and 0.5 mg/kg b.w. per day) on myeloid haematopoiesis.

Material and Methods

During this experiment, the number of all types of cells in the erythroblastic cell line was evaluated in porcine bone marrow before and after BPA administration.


The obtained results clearly indicate changes in haematopoietic activity of the bone marrow, which was demonstrated by a decrease in erythroblastic cell line production in both experimental groups. The haematological effects of the bone marrow changes were anaemia, caused by a number of erythrocytes which was depressed due to their immaturity, and a significant decrease in mean cellular volume in both groups.


The harmful effect of high and low doses of BPA on haematopoietic processes was proved.