Zbigniew Czech, Zbigniew Maciejewski and Krystyna Kondratowicz-Maciejewska
The application of water-borne pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSA) based on acrylics is increasing in a variety of industrial areas. The have been used for manufacturing of double sided and carrier free mounting tapes, splicing tapes, marking and sign films, self-adhesive labels, packaging tapes, protective films and diverse high quality medical materials. Nano-sized inorganic fillers can modify diverse adhesive and self-adhesive coating properties such as tack, peel adhesion, shear strength at 20°C and 70°C, and removability Amorphous synthetic silica nanoparticles in form of water dispersions: Ludox PX-30 (30 wt.% silica stabilizing with counter ion sodium), Ludox PT-40 (40 wt.% silica stabilizing with counter ion sodium), Ludox PT-40AS (40 wt.% silica stabilizing with counter ion ammonium), and Ludox PW-50 (50 wt.% silica stabilizing with counter ion sodium) (from Grace) in concentrations between 1 and 5wt.% were used for modifying of water-born pressure-sensitive adhesive acrylics: Acronal 052, Acronal CR 516 (both BASF) and Plextol D273 (Synthomer) properties. It has been found in this study that the nano-technologically reinforced system containing of Acronal 052 and amorphous silica Ludox PX-30 showed a great enhancement in tack, peel adhesion and shear strength. In this paper we evaluate the performance of Acronal 052 modified with amorphous silica Ludox PX-30.
Mirosław Kobierski, Krystyna Kondratowicz-Maciejewska and Katarzyna Kociniewska
To assess the soil quality of Phaeozems and Luvisols from Kujawy region (Kujawy-Pomerania Province, Poland), the soil quality indicators such as: content of organic matter and nutrients, as well as bulk density were used. The soils showed similar inherent properties (soil texture, depth to parent material, type of clay) and management practices (tillage, crop rotation, nutrient application). The following properties were determined: bulk density, grain size composition, exchangeable acidity, concentration of available forms of potassium, phosphorus and magnesium, and the content of total organic carbon (TOC) and nitrogen (Nt). The amounts of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved nitrogen (DN) were measured in the solution obtained after extraction with 0.004 M CaCl2. The stock of TOCs, Nts and DOCs, and DNs were calculated. The total organic carbon content in surface horizon of Phaeozems was significant higher (13.9-20.1 g·kg-1) than in Ap horizon of Luvisols (8.3-11.0 g·kg-1), which is a consequence of their origin. The stock of organic carbon in Ap horizon fell within 5.89 to 8.49 kg·m2 in Phaeozems and 3.80 to 4.81 kg·m2 in Luvisols. Although Phaeozems demonstrated a significant higher content of TOC, as compared with Luvisols, the amount of dissolved organic carbon was similar in both soil types, which points to a higher share of DOC in the total organic carbon content in Luvisols (up to 17.5% in Et horizon). The amounts of dissolved organic carbon and dissolved nitrogen and their stock do not depend on the type of soils if the management practices are similar.