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  • Author: Krystyna Boroń-Krupińska x
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Open access

Krystyna Boroń-Krupińska


Introduction: Chronic pain is a complex phenomenon, requiring a multidisciplinary treatment program, including psychological and physical aspect. The aim of the treatment is functional status improvement as well as sense of control and patient’s involvement in acceptance and adaptation process to live with persistent pain and increase the quality of life. The aim of this study was to verify the dependency between relaxation and chronic pain intensity and pain coping strategies.

Material and methods: The objective of this study was to demonstrate the dependence between relaxation, as a part of multidisciplinary pain treatment, and pain intensity, depression, function and pain coping strategies. The study was conducted among forty five (N = 45) pain patients, at age 60-80,in medical care center for elderly. The studied participants were randomized in three groups, each consisted fifteen persons, including the half part of women and half part of men. First group participated in relaxation training and standard physiotherapy, second group participated only in standard physiotherapy, control group participated in placebo - conversation with relaxation trainer, without training, with standard physiotherapy.

Pain intensity was measured with VAS scale(visual-analogue pain scale), every day of the study, twice: before and after activity. Pain coping strategies were verified at the baseline and after two weeks with Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ).

Results: Results were analyzed with Statistica program. The study showed pain intensity decrease in all examined group, adaptive pain coping strategies significantly increased in relaxation group.

Conclusions: Relaxation caused the pain intensity decrease; pain coping strategies induced pain intensity decline.

Open access

Lesław Kulmatycki, Torzyńska Katarzyna and Krystyna Boroń-Krupińska


Introduction: In Wroclaw experiment investigated whether and to what extent participation in a four-day short courses relaxation affects the experience of pain and whether there is a difference in the experience of pain in participants of trophotropic and ergotropic relaxation activities.

Material and methods: Participants according to preferences of strategy of how to cope with pain were assigned to the two groups. Ergotropic relaxation group was represented at trial by a "movement meditation" concern practice-oriented activity of the body and body work. Trophotropic relaxation group was represented at trial by "meditation seat" and focus more on the content of consciousness while maintaining the passivity of the body. The experiment was performed in the Psychology Unit (University School of Physical Education in Wroclaw) in the relaxation room. Fourteen people took part in this research (10 women and 4 men in the age between 35-55). During experiment all individuals were asked to complete a questionnaire CSQ (Coping Strategies Questionnaire) A.C. Rosenstiel'a and F.J. Keefe'go and VAS (Visual Analogue Scale) as a pain scale. VAS scale was used before (pre-test) and after (post-test) relaxation training.

Results: Both groups, ergotropic as well as trophotropic, reduced experience of pain. After relaxation session (post-test) according to VAS scale the mean score of the ergotropic relaxation group was 2,7 and for trophotropic group - 3,8. It was statistically significant difference between the two groups.

Conclusions: The experiment showed that the technique of dynamic relaxation was more effective in reducing pain. Perhaps the choice of relaxation techniques aimed at changing the perception of discomfort, we should take into account the ability of how to cope and reduce pain. Perhaps this is the most important factor when choosing a specific relaxation technique