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  • Author: Krystian Heffner x
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Foreign Migration of Poles in Scientific Research at the Turn of Century

The article deals with problems related to present foreign migrations of Poles. The attention is concentrated on presenting scientific research results in this sphere indicating many problems caused by migrations not only in the social, demographic and economic spheres but also in political and cultural spheres thus enabling scientists to understand better this complex and multidimensional phenomenon.


Shopping centers in the Silesian Voivodeship have a significant impact on smaller settlement units located in outer areas of agglomerations. It consists mainly in changes related to social, economic, as well as functional and spatial spheres. Studies shows that shopping centers take over more and more functions of higher order (services, public culture, administration) and restrict the economic activity in rural areas outer areas of agglomerations. At the stage of the irrepressible process of suburbanisation of rural areas surrounding large urban agglomerations and structural changes in towns, it is difficult to conclusively assess the consequences of the operation of shopping centers in outer metropolitan areas. The impact of shopping centers on small towns and rural areas is a very dynamic process and requires systematic research.


Retail trade and services are becoming the most dynamically developing sector of non-agricultural activity in Polish rural areas. State-owned and cooperative stores have been closed down and they were replaced mostly by private stores. There are more and more commercial outlets of various formats, including supermarket chains, discount stores and integrated chains. Despite growing number of modern retail trade formats, traditional small-format, often referred to as local market is also really important. New trading posts in small towns and rural areas are mainly located in the zones of influence of larger cities. They affect many changes of spatial, social and economic character. Small towns and rural areas surrounding them more and more frequently start to compete for further retail trade investments while noticing lots of benefits and costs of this process. The aim of the article is to show the scale of new retail investment in small towns and rural areas in Poland. Research devoted to this field is important from the point of view of choosing the location of new investments related to discount chains and of the strategy for the development of small towns and rural areas. Identification of consequences of the operation of discount chains in chosen rural areas and in small towns can impact the verification of the policy adopted by local authorities in relation to spatial planning and forming the functional structure.


The authors of the article develop the concept of a migration region. The experiences of the Opolskie Voivodship in the sphere of external migration function as a field of reference. The issues connected with the factors preconditioning the formation of such a region are of utmost interest to the authors.